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Description

Mobility Hubs are places of connectivity where different modes of transportation - from walking to rapid transit – come together seamlessly. One of the key components of mobility hubs is the presence of a large area of influence, which is achieved from the concentration of employment, housing, shopping and/or recreation centres. This integrated suite of mobility services is intended to meet first-last mile needs of transit users through shared and sustainable transportation. It offers different options to users and ensures optimal connectivity. The most beneficial intermodal mobility hubs are mainly implemented close to existing mobility junctions such as train stations, as well as other transit stations.

Other elements of mobility hubs include dedicated curb spaces for taxis, energy generation from solar cells, electric vehicle charging stations, interactive kiosks, and amenities like cafes or plazas to create an active space that is welcoming during layovers.

Problems to be solved

AccessibilityCarbon emissionsSafety & SecurityCongestionConvenienceWayfinding

Benefits

Benefits show tangibly how implementation of a Solution can improve the city or place.

The main goal of Mobility Hubs is to ease the interchange between different modes of transportation. This improves mobility services for citizens and encourages the use of collective modes of transportation, as opposed to individual modes. Additional benefits of Mobility Hubs are given below, with benefits varying from project to project depending on the scale of implementation.

Main benefits
  • Improving public transport accessibility

  • Improving travel safety

  • Promoting sustainable private transport models

  • Reducing GHG emissions

Potential benefits
  • Enabling new business opportunities

  • Promoting sustainable behavior

  • Improving life quality

  • Improving social integration

  • Improving traffic management

Functions

Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.
Mandatory functions
    Facilitate seamless integration of different modes of transportation

    Connects trains, cars, bikes, etc., and encourages sharing

    Provide access to residents from different neighbourhoods

    Promotes city-wide inclusion by optimising transport schedules

    Ensure safety and security for all travellers

    Ensures accountability for vehicle sharing and provides security at hubs

Potential functions
    Cater to services that will help cover first and last mile travel for residents

    Optimises first and last mile logistics

    Provide universal access through mobility cards

    Facilitates the use of single payment sytems/mobility cards for as many modes of transportation as possible

    Provide healthy spaces to spend time in

    Provides free spaces for play and rest

    Provide access to toilets, shopping facility, restaurants, cafes, and bars

    Provides essential services for travellers during layovers

    Provide charging stations for electric vehicles

    Facilitates the installation of charging infrastructure

    Offer connectivity

    Provides WiFi services for travellers

Variants

A variant is generally something that is slightly different from other similar things. In the context of Solutions, variants are different options or possibly sub-fields/branches by which the Solution may be implemented, e.g. different technological options.

Based on size and complexity of services offered, mobility hubs can be classified into the following variants:

Description

These are small mobility hubs with some basic services that are usually located in low-density neighbourhoods. All amenities are usually visible generally across the street or within the same block. They have a small footprint and serve smaller access-sheds than large-scale mobility hubs.

Description

These are mobility hubs located in more complex urban environments and encompass one or more stations or bus stops.  They usually provide additional services such as car sharing or information on the next connection.

Description

These are large scale mobility hubs usually located in dense urban areas or terminal stations with transit options to regional trains. Major mobility hubs provide services such as secured bike parking and bus layover zones, alongside various other amenities, and infrastructures. They have a large footprint, provide access for high-capacity modes, and serves a large access-shed reflecting regional demand.

Use Cases

ICT

Mobility

Smart Multimodal Mobility Services

In this measure, the city of Turku catalyses and pilots the development of a MaaS system and services in the city area.

Mobility

Shared E-Mobility System in Milan

Milan’s shared e-mobility system includes: e-cars, e-bikes, e-logistics vehicles, smart parking, e-vehicle charging, and condominium e-car sharing.

Mobility

E-mobility Stations for the Domagkpark District and Centre-Periphery Integration

Mobility stations, as part of traffic and mobility planning, are a new concept. They enable cost-effective and flexible access to different modes of transport. Two mobility stations are therefore established in the project area.

Mobility

Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

City Context

What supporting factors and characteristics of a city is this Solution fit for? What factors would ease implementation?

Before mobility hubs can be implemented in a city, it is important to assess the specific requirements of the regional population, demography, land use, travel patterns, and regional policy objectives. Correct placement and availability of the right range of services are some of the driving factors for the success of mobility hubs. Clearly, the more services offered, the more complex the operation will be, but also the more attractive it might be. The decision should be based on a thorough analysis of the expected costs and benefits of the possible service offers (financial and non-financial).

Some key lessons learnt from the implementation of mobility hubs around the world are:

  • Mobility hubs work best when they are located within acceptable walking distances to/from accommodations, local centres, and public transport nodes.
  • With the rapid technological advancements in transportation such as electric vehicles, the need for charging infrastructures, and dynamic digital services, flexible functioning of mobility hubs is crucial.
  • Joint information and trainings on services offered by all participating actors and how they work should be given to the public.
  • Business models are dependent on the extent of private sector involvement. An initial assessment of potential stakeholders and scale of infrastructure should be carried out, as well as land use and citizens’ income.
  • The possibility of external financing through EU-projects or another research financing can be explored.
  • A budget should be reserved from the start of the project, for assessment and evaluation of the effects of the project on travel habits.

(Trivector, 2019)

Government Initiatives

What efforts and policies are local/national public administrations undertaking to help further and support this Solution?

1) Transport White Paper 2011: The European Commission adopted a roadmap of 40 concrete initiatives for the next decade to build a competitive transport system that will increase mobility, remove major barriers in key areas and fuel growth and employment. At the same time, the proposals will dramatically reduce Europe's dependence on imported oil and cut carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050.

By 2050, key goals will include:

  • No more conventionally fuelled cars in cities.
  • 40% use of sustainable low-carbon fuels in aviation; at least 40% cut in shipping emissions.
  • A 50% shift of medium-distance intercity passenger and freight journeys from road to rail and waterborne transport.
  • All of which will contribute to a 60% cut in transport emissions by the middle of the century (European Commission).

(European Commission)

2) Urban Mobility Package 2013:

  • Calls for action from the Member States.
  • Commits to reinforce EU support for the exchange of experience, best practices, and funding.
  • Gives help for cities to develop Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans.
  • Gives recommendations for coordinated action in: Urban logistics, Urban access regulations, ITS deployment in urban areas, and Urban road safety (European Commission).

(European Commission) 

3) The Urban Mobility Portal: www.eltis.org

  • Eltis facilitates the exchange of information, knowledge, and experience in the field of sustainable urban mobility in Europe. It is an extensive guide with a well-detailed process and was developed with the needs of the small & medium-sized cities in mind.

(European Commission)  

Stakeholder Mapping

Which stakeholders need to be considered (and how) regarding the planning and implementation of this Solution?

Stakeholder Map of Mobility Hubs (Gavilán Orozco, 2020BABLE 2021)

Market Potential

How big is the potential market for this Solution? Are there EU goals supporting the implementation? How has the market developed over time and more recently?

With the increasing use of digital platforms to manage traveller journeys end-to-end, smart mobility will reshape mobility ecosystems over the next 20 years. According to an analysis done by Oliver Wyman, which includes China; USA; Germany; France; and Italy, the market share of innovative mobility services is projected to quintuple through 2040, while the share of private cars will shrink by roughly a quarter.

Market Share Forecast

To gain a deeper understanding of these developments from a traveller perspective, 7.500 global consumers were surveyed about smart mobility, to assess the smart mobility attractiveness to different traveller groups, consumers’ willingness to pay, potential impacts on modal shifts, and perceptions of companies in the smart mobility space. The results of the survey, as shown in the figure below, revealed that the majority of participants would consider changing their currently preferred mode of travel if an alternative offered smart mobility services.

Survey Results

The above is particularly true for young consumers (18-35). For instance, 96 % and above would consider switching from cars to public transport for access to smart mobility. With increasing age, the influence of smart mobility offerings on individual travel decisions declines, but even so, 84% of respondents over 65 identified smart mobility services as important, and three-quarters of seniors would change their preferred travel mode for access to smart mobility.

The rewards of unlocking smart mobility could be vast, as this market is expected to generate $270 billion in revenues and profits of $125 billion to $150 billion by 2040.

(Oliver Wyman Mobility 2040)

Cost Structure

Resources Needed for Mobility Hub Implementation (BABLE, 2021)

Operating Models

Which business and operating models exist for this Solution? How are they structured and funded?

High upfront investments that will most likely come from public sources are required initially to set up the infrastructures and amenities for mobility hubs. In the long run, less financing will be required. Other funding sources such as flexible ticketing models (subscriptions), parking tariffs, pricing models from vehicle sharing, revenues from advertising and electric vehicle charging infrastructures will be possible. Anticipated incomes from the operation can be used to attract external investors or serve as a basis for value-capture mechanisms. Government subsidies are likely to play a bigger role in small, neighbourhood mobility hubs, in the absence of private sector involvement.

With the proliferation of electric vehicles (EV), developing infrastructures that allow for faster charging times is one of the issues that the industry is currently facing, as well as precise business model of how EV charging can be monetized. Mobility hubs must therefore find a balance between integrating EV charging infrastructure with options for filling up on petrol since fossil fuel vehicles will not disappear anytime soon.

Legal Requirements

Relevant legal directives at the EU and national levels.

Some of the regulations and standards set up by the European Commission to drive the adoption of innovative transport technologies whilst ensuring data protection are:

1) Intelligent Transport System (Directive 2010/40/EU): It was adopted on 7 July 2010 to accelerate the deployment of innovative transport technologies across Europe. This Directive is an important instrument for the coordinated implementation of ITS in Europe, and aims to establish interoperable and seamless ITS services while leaving Member States the freedom to decide which systems to invest in.

(European Commission)

2) General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679): It lays down rules relating to the protection of natural persons about the processing of personal data and rules relating to the free movement of personal data. It protects the fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons and in particular their right to the protection of personal data.

(European Commission)

3) Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (Directive 2014/94/EU): It sets out minimum requirements for the building-up of alternative fuels infrastructure, including recharging points for electric vehicles and refuelling points for natural gas (LNG and CNG) and hydrogen, to be implemented by means of Member States' national policy frameworks, as well as common technical specifications for such recharging and refuelling points, and user.

(European Commission)

The creation of this solution has been supported by EU funding

Use Cases

Explore real-life examples of implementations of this Solution.

Mobility

ICT

Smart public transit - NFC+QR stickers for Tartu Smart City

Mobi Lab installed smart stickers on every one of the 294 bus stops in Tartu. The stickers have pre-programmed NFC chips and QR codes to load real-time data of upcoming buses. The system uses GPS data from moving buses and helps daily commuters be aware of any delays in the schedule.

Mobility

ICT

Real-Time Bus Schedule App for Tartu Smart City

Mobi Lab built a mobile phone application for Tartu Smart City for citizens to access real-time bus schedule information and find the closest bus stops.

Mobility

Smart Public Transportation System ATUS

ATUS is a Smart Public Transportation System developed by Konya Metropolitan Municipality in order to provide convenience to public transportation users.

Mobility

Air

Health

Blanchardstown Smart Public Mobility Hubs

Reducing our reliance on private cars is an important step towards decarbonisation, improving mobility and reducing congestion. In 2020, Fingal County Council launched an innovative new Public Mobility Hub, providing citizens with shared, sustainable and accessible public mobility options.

Mobility

ICT

MaaS App for Multimodal Routes in Zaragoza, Spain

In April 2021, the Zaragoza City Council and Avanza announced the launch of the ZUM app, integrating different modes of transport in the Aragonese capital and allowing users to plan, book and pay for multimodal routes.

Mobility

Supporting New Mobility and reducing parked cars in the streets of Schwabing West, Munich

Mobility behaviour in densely populated cities needs a change towards a higher use of New Mobility. By presenting the full range of alternative mobility, this pilot project in Munich helped residents to change their daily mobility usage.

Mobility

Integrated on-demand mobility for a strong public transport system

The on-demand service has been successfully on the road since 2018 and was expanded to Billbrook in 2019. As a result, ioki Hamburg now not only improves the accessibility of public transport in the inner city, but also the connection in the surrounding areas (Stormarn and Harburg districts).

Mobility

Digitalised ASL/ALT Transport in Rural Areas

The new 'Wittlich Shuttle' can be booked on demand and via the app. It has been successfully in use since 2018 and has seen an increase in passengers of up to 400% compared to the previous city bus. Even during the Corona crisis, the concept has proven to be safe, needs-based and flexible.

Mobility

Dundee Mobility Innovation Living Lab (MILL) & ShareMORE (Shared Mobility and Resource Efficiency)

Dundee is an ideal testbed to demonstrate the integration of smart mobility projects and solutions to address many of the complex social and economic challenges facing cities today.

Mobility

ICT

Edinburgh City Operations Project

Launched in November 2022 Edinburgh's new Operations Centre receives real-time data from the CCTV network 24/7. This will integrate with other technologies and help to improve traffic flow, transport infrastructure and city planning - subsequently improving the city’s collective carbon footprint.

Social Responsibility

Mobility

REACTIVITY: Rewarding Intermodal Active Mobility in Lecce, IT

REACTIVITY is the project by EIT Urban Mobility rewarding intermodal active mobility (walking, micromobility, public transport, carpooling) with economic prizes to spend in local shops in Braga (PT) and Lecce (IT).

Social Responsibility

Mobility

REACTIVITY: Rewarding Intermodal Active Mobility in Braga, PT

REACTIVITY is the project by EIT Urban Mobility rewarding intermodal active mobility (walking, micromobility, public transport, carpooling) with economic prizes to spend in local shops in Braga (PT) and Lecce (IT).

Mobility

Building

Innovation Hub at Perth Creative Exchange

Perth's Innovation hub, with ERDF grant, PKC match-funding, and wider support, created the Famous Grouse Ideas Centre, fostering creative business growth in the Tay Cities Region. The hub bolsters arts, economy, and partnerships, catalyzing local impact.

Mobility

Building

Inverness Smart Mobility: Mesh

The project establishes a wireless mesh infrastructure for smart city services, enhancing transport management, traffic flow, and public information dissemination, fostering a more connected and efficient urban environment.

Waste

Health

Edinburgh Driving Operational Efficiency (DOE) project

Edinburgh's ERDF-funded project uses smart sensors for efficient waste management and housing upkeep, boosting services and citizen well-being in alignment with the 8th City program.

Mobility

Connecting the dots: Mobility hubs as a game changer

In the framework of FastTrack, the team from Debrecen, now part of the city’s public transport company (DKV), has worked on the creation of integrated mobility hubs in Debrecen.

Mobility

The next step on the road to a full MaaS

Within the FastTrack Project, the Municipality of Budapest focused on public and shared mobility and multi-modal hubs by further developing the mobility-points approach, with a focus on the software side (MaaS) and on integration with public transport.

Mobility

Bucharest's Integrated Mobility Center

The main objective of the mobility innovation selected by TPBI is to create an Integrated Mobility Center to ensure the electronic collection of public transport and mobility data from all sources and IT systems in order to obtain coherent, integrated information to assist decision making.

Mobility

ICT

On-call company transport as a flexible and sustainable alternative to company cars

Thanks to digitalisation and optimisation, a total of 14 accessible vehicles have been successfully operating between the Bonn, Darmstadt and Frankfurt sites. Since then, the company transport service has offered Telekom employees a flexible and sustainable alternative to a company car.

Mobility

ICT

Optimisation and Digitalisation of an Existing Regular Service in Appenzell, Switzerland

After the initial launch the service was booked by over 16,000 passengers. The advance booking function in particular is very popular and has been used for almost 90% of journeys. This allows residents and tourists in the region to plan their journeys ahead of time and safely.

Mobility

On-Demand Mobility in Karlsruhe Region's Rural Areas

Integration of an on-demand service into the public transport system for residents of rural regions in Karlsruhe.

Mobility

E-mobility Stations for the Domagkpark District and Centre-Periphery Integration

Mobility stations, as part of traffic and mobility planning, are a new concept. They enable cost-effective and flexible access to different modes of transport. Two mobility stations are therefore established in the project area.

Mobility

ICT

Air

Health

The Luftlotse App for Munich’s Living Lab

The app includes corresponding local options such as ride sharing companies, electric mobility services or a gateway to relevant public transport. In addition the app includes other mobility related information for the area and a function to display a heat map of exhaust pollution in the city lab.

Mobility

ICT

Mobility Subscription on Local Travel in Stockholm

In Stockholm, UbiGo is developing and aiming to launch one of the world’s first real MaaS services. The service is built on a flexible subscription model that can meet the everyday travel needs of entire households.

Mobility

Urban Corridor Cases as Pilots for Sustainable Urban Mobility

This measure aimed to develop planning processes which enable and support a car independent lifestyle in the Kupittaa district of Turku.

ICT

Mobility

Smart Multimodal Mobility Services

In this measure, the city of Turku catalyses and pilots the development of a MaaS system and services in the city area.

Mobility

Shared E-Mobility System in Milan

Milan’s shared e-mobility system includes: e-cars, e-bikes, e-logistics vehicles, smart parking, e-vehicle charging, and condominium e-car sharing.

Tourism

Mobility

ICT

Föli: Single ticket experience for multi-modal travel and events in Turku region

City of Turku started with PayiQ city when it and surrounding municipalities wanted to offer mobile ticketing originally to the handheld generation and casual travelers. PayiQ was chosen as a development partner through competitive tendering.

Mobility

Health

Encouraging Cycling in Antwerp

The port area is currently not easily accessible by bike. Therefore, sustainable solutions for cycling commuters will be developed to overcome land and water barriers, improve cycling conditions and encourage commuters to travel to work via bike.

Mobility

Integrating The Collective Transport Network in Antwerp

In order to link the city of Antwerp with its port area, efforts are made to expand and promote the public transport network in and around the city.

Mobility

Konya's Bicycle Tram

The city of Konya has adapted one of their busiest tram lines to allow for an easier onboarding and more comfortable ride for bicycle owners. This project intends to promote the use of active modes of transport.

Mobility

Onboard Contactless Ticketing

The city of Tallinn has introduced a smart solution for public transportation payment-as-you-go, with EMV cards to quicken and facilitate its ticketing.

Mobility

Security

Wayfinding Implementation

Enhanced wayfinding provision would assist in delivering economic benefits, such as those sought within the Regional Economic Strategy, by encouraging those on foot to explore, linger and engage with the city centre beyond the demands of their immediate schedule.

Tourism

Mobility

Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan - Aberdeen

Aberdeen is undergoing a series of major transformative projects. Work is therefore underway to identify the measures required to ‘lock in’ the benefits of the new bypass and transform the urban core into a much more pleasant place to visit and spend time in.

Mobility

ICT

Trafiklab - Together we Create the Future of Public Transport

Trafiklab gathers, in a single open data platform, information about transport in Sweden and makes Application Programming Interfaces (API’s) available to everyone, so that users can develop and share smartphone apps.

Mobility

ICT

Health

Implementing Storage and Counters for Bikes

Klaipėda wants to promote cycling as a safe and affordable means of transportation for its citizens. Therefore, bike storage systems have been made available in different areas of the city, protecting the bikes from thieves and harsh weather conditions.

Mobility

Multimodal Mobility Stations

'Mobility stations' make environmentally-friendly urban travel possible and offer sharing alternatives to buying one's own vehicle. Eight multi-modal mobility stations were built in the project area, two of which also include Shared District Boxes. Additionally, the stations offer free wifi.

Mobility

Connecting Transport Systems

Antwerp wants to provide locations – such as P&R’s in the city outskirts – where commuters can easily switch from one transportation mode to a more sustainable other when traveling to and from their work in the city or port area.

Mobility

Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

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