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Description

Vehicle sharing systems allow customers to use various vehicles without the need to own each vehicle. There are different types of vehicle sharing systems on the market. Differences can include the type of vehicle shared, like car sharing, bike sharing, scooter sharing or electric vehicle sharing. In addition to the type of vehicle, one main difference between vehicle sharing systems is the vehicle holder. Most commonly, the operator owns the vehicles that are then shared with the users. Another opportunity is peer-to-peer vehicle sharing, in which the citizens share their own vehicles. For each vehicle sharing system, it is necessary to ensure the accessibility of the vehicles and to manage the location and operation of the vehicles. 

The growth of vehicle sharing systems is driven by urbanisation, increasing smartphone penetration, growth in Internet of Things (IoT), climate change, regulations, growing awareness about the environment and personal health etc (SUNRISE, 2020).

Problems to be solved

GHG emissionsCongestionLarge space consumptionDeficits in intermodalityHigh investment costsPollution

Benefits

Benefits show tangibly how implementation of a Solution can improve the city or place.

The main goal of Vehicle Sharing Systems is to reduce the private vehicle ownership. Thereby, it ireduces the number of vehicles in an urban area while increasing the number of flexible services for citizens. Besides that, the solution achieves the benefits listed below. Whereas some benefits are likely to be fulfiled with a basic implementation of the solution, the fulfilment of the potential benefits depends on the functions implemented in a specific project.

Main benefits
  • Increasing safety

  • Reducing operation costs

  • Reducing private car ownership

Potential benefits
  • Reducing use of fossils

  • Reducing GHG emissions

  • Promoting sustainable private transport models

  • Improving traffic management

  • Improved data accessibility

  • Enhanced data collection

Functions

Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.
Mandatory functions
    Accessing service

    Products, that enable users to access the vehicles (e.g. via an app)

    Moving passengers with shared vehicles

    Vehicles that move the useres, such as bikes, scooters or cars

    Paying for vehicle sharing system

    Services, that enable a payment of the services (e.g. distance- or time-based)

    Managing vehicle fleet

    Products, that manage and coordinate the vehicles of the fleet

    Informing customers about vehicle sharing

    Products, that inform the customer about the services (e.g. apps, websites)

Potential functions
    Charing shared electric vehicles

    If electric vehicels are within the shared fleet, charging facilities are neccessary

    Connecting vehicles of the shared fleet

    Vehicle to vehicle communication can be used within the fleet

    Connecting different vehicle sharing systems

    To improve the usability mobility cards or other instruments can be used to give users access to several vehicle

Products offering these functions

Fleet Management

Comprehensive service portfolio gives fleet managers a constant, real-time overview of all vehicle data so they can optimize operational processes.

Variants

A variant is generally something that is slightly different from other similar things. In the context of Solutions, variants are different options or possibly sub-fields/branches by which the Solution may be implemented, e.g. different technological options.

There are many different variants of vehicle sharing systems that differ in degree of shared usage and flexibility of usage,

Different variants of a vehicle sharing system (statista, 2020)

Vehicle sharing systems like Car sharing and car rentals have the longest distance (15+km). Ride hailing is normally used for distances between 5-15km. Short distances between 0-5km are often done with shared bikes or scooters.

Different variants of vehicle sharing systems by disctance (statista, 2020)

(SUNRISE, 2020, statista, 2020)

Description

Professional service providers offer an organised joint use of cars at different stations in the city in reserved parking spots. Users pick up the car at a station and return it after use to the same station. Electric cars can also be offered. The system functions mostly with memberships for the customers. The provider is responsible for the maintenance and repair of the vehicles.

The example of Bremen shows that through 390 shared cars ca. 6.000 private cars have been taken off roads which equals 100mio€ that otherwise would have to been invested in underground car parks.  Car-sharing in general reduces costs for investment, insurance, parking and maintenance.

Use Cases

Mobility

Corporate Electric Car Sharing for University

The aim was to reduce staff using their own cars for university business, and to increase the use of Electric Vehicles at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The sharing scheme is managed by a third party enterprise through an online booking system.

Mobility

Station bound district car sharing

With the aim to improve the sharing of green mobility solutions, 3-5 sharing cars are operated by several contractors in Strijp-S, Eindhoven.

Mobility

E-Car Sharing in social housing BWSG-Hauffgasse

E-Car sharing in the social neighbourhood is an innovative approach in the issue of e-mobility in social housing, contributing not only to the environmental goals but also to the community building as a strong societal element.

Description

Free-floating cars can be picked up wherever the previous user parked them in the predefined operational area. The cars can therefore be used one-way. The locations of the cars are shown in the app. The system only allows reservations a short time in advance which enables high flexibility. Compared to station-based services, free-floating is very expensive (e.g., 24€/8,5€ for 2 hours). Both types of car-sharing have only small effects on car ownership because every second user also has his own car.

Description

This system describes the sharing of privately owned vehicles that normally are only used for one hour a day. Therefore, car-sharing can use resources more efficiently and share costs between owner and users. New service platforms bring the parties together and manage bookings and payments.

Use Cases

Mobility

ICT

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Car Sharing Platforms

GoMore and SnappCar are delivering Peer-to-Peer (P2P) car sharing platforms, making it simple to adopt a car-light lifestyle in the City of Stockholm.

Description

Bike-sharing services are well-established worldwide and are used for many different occasions. E-bikes can be integrated but require higher investments because of the charging infrastructure. Like cars bicycles can be shared station-based and free-floating. Moreover, hybrid systems are used. A locking system can be integrated into the docking station or in the app. Bike-sharing can be run by the city or private providers. The benefits of bike-sharing are the missing investment costs and the ability to avoid crowded streets. Aside from beneficial effects on health through reduced emissions, users also profit from the (regular) movement.

Use Cases

Mobility

Public bike sharing system in Tartu

With the aim of encouraging the use of bicycles and make this a considerable alternative to cars, the city of Tartu has implemented a city wide bike sharing scheme as part of the SmartEnCity Project. The system consists of public city bikes, parking lots with safety locks and a management system.

Description

To also provide a sustainable transport option for heavy or large items, cargo bikes have already been implemented in many cities. The difference between having electric support or not, having the cargo box in the front or in the back, charging at a station or private, etc. Cargo bikes are especially seen as an alternative for last-mile delivery because they are environmentally friendly, space-saving and congestion-free.

Use Cases

Mobility

Offering a Test Fleet of E-Bikes and Cargo Bikes

This measure consists of offering companies and residents in Årsta district in Stockholm, the possibility to test e-cargo bikes for a limited period of time in order to find out whether, and to what extent, these vehicles provide a viable mobility option.

Mobility

E-Bike Sharing for the District

A first E-Bike terminal was opened in April 2018 at the central cemetery of Vienna. A second terminal is at the mobility point. 12 E-Bikes and a Cargo-Bike are in operation. The E-Bikes are available via the SIMBike App or through a chip card offered at the spot. Sycube developed the whole system.

Description

Mopeds or motor scooters travel faster and more efficiently on urban roads than cars. Mopeds are mostly free-floating and are managed through an app. The batteries are recharged by the motor scooter providers. The usually allowed distance is between 50 and 100 km. The speed is generally limited to ca. 45km/h because of driving licenses. E-mopeds with higher speed are also in use, e.g. in Madrids police with up to 90km/h.

Description

E-scooters are new on the market although now available in many cities. They are often designed as free-floating which leads to many conflicts because of random parking which creates barriers on pavements. The “juicers” collect the scooters for recharging and distribute the vehicles afterwards in the city. E-scooters are especially useful for the last mile e.g., for commuters or tourists. The costs normally consist of an unlock fee (ca. 1€) and prices per minute (ca. 20ct). Thus, they can be regarded as the most expensive option for shared mobility.

Use Cases

Mobility

E-Scooter sharing service in Stockholm

To provide a new form of green micro mobility to Stockholm citizens, VOI introduced shared dockless electric scooter sharing service in the city.

Description

Aside from ride sharing with family members etc. also ride sharing software can be used to find someone to share the vehicle mostly as a regular commuter alternative or for occasional long-distance journeys.

Description

Ride hailing is an alternative to taxi and uses app-based booking platforms. The app shows the location of potential private drivers in real-time. In the EU only professional drivers are allowed (e.g., Uber).

Description

Several passengers with different destinations can be transported by bus-on-demand services. They often use minibuses and a dynamic pooling algorithm that assigns the passengers to an existing ride. Clients are picked up and transported together on a completely dynamic route which leads to lower prices and more time needed for a ride compared to taxis.

City Context

What supporting factors and characteristics of a city is this Solution fit for? What factors would ease implementation?

Vehicle sharing systems are part of “mobility as a service” (MaaS). It describes the approach to providing access to various mobility services, such as public transport, car sharing, cabs etc. in one integrated, digital mobility offering, which can cover all individual transport demands. The user enters a start location and destination into the app, which then shows different options on how to travel. MaaS approaches are implemented in a growing number of cities to fully exploit the full potential of shared mobility.

(SUNRISE, 2020)

Supporting Factors

  1. Already existing mobility stations – starting point for an area-wide implementation.
  2. Dense cities enable a higher number of users and a more efficient and convenient distribution of vehicles and stations.
  3. A public charging infrastructure for electric vehicles can support the business model as electric vehicles might be part of the shared vehicle fleet.
  4. Available parking areas.
  5. Proper bike lanes and other connected infrastructure.

Stakeholder Mapping

Which stakeholders need to be considered (and how) regarding the planning and implementation of this Solution?

Stakholder mapping for vehicle sharing systems (BABLE, 2021)

Market Potential

How big is the potential market for this Solution? Are there EU goals supporting the implementation? How has the market developed over time and more recently?

Global Car-sharing revenue forecast in million USD (statista, 2020)

The different segments of vehicle sharing show high growth rates. The average growth rate of car-sharing is 7.6% per year and of bike-sharing 14.5%. The penetration rates are very low. Therefore, there is a high potential for expansion.

Innovation diffusion curve for Car-sharing for 2019 (statista, 2020)

The overall number of car sharing users is continuously increasing and is predicted to be 36 million in 2025.

Developement of global car sharing users (statista, 2020)

Moped sharing is implemented in 122 cities in 22 countries and had 9 million users in 2020 (compared to 4 million in 2019). The number of mopeds increased by about 38.000 mopeds to 104.000 mopeds overall in 2020.

(unumotors, 2021)

Cost Structure

The primary costs of a vehicle sharing system are the initial costs for vehicles and chargers, if necessary. The operational costs are mostly the costs of fuelling, maintaining and cleaning the vehicles as well as expenses related to customer service and insurance.

The implementation costs for bike-sharing systems are ca. 2.500€-3.000€ per bike. They consist of: station building (70%), bicycles (17%), operation equipment (6%), communication (5%), and management (2%). The maintenance costs for bike-sharing systems are ca. 1.500-2.500€ per year. They consist of: redistribution of bicycles (30%), maintenance of bicycles (22%), maintenance of stations (20%), back-end system (14%), management (13%) and replacement of bicycles and stations (1%). (OBIS, 2011)

 The costs for car-sharing depend on the number of cars, the needed charging stations, the implementation, the maintenance, etc. Charging stations cost around 700 to 5.000€. The costs of electric cars start at around 24.000€. (DGRV, 2021)

E-scooters (kickboards) can be charged on normal sockets. If stations are used for E-scooters in public spaces, it is often to organize the public space and not for charging. The price for E-Scooters for private use is between 400 and 2000€. (verivox, 2021)

The implementation of vehicle sharing systems is often bundled at mobility stations that are managed by the city or public transport provider. An example is a mobility station in Rendsburg, Germany with bicycle parking, a bench, a repair station for bicycles, lighting, an opportunity for bike sharing, one parking spot for car-sharing and signs. With construction, the costs add up to 84.500€. (KielRegion, 2020)

Pricing

A comparison of vehicle sharing providers in Berlin shows that E-Scooters are sometimes even more expensive than car-sharing. The reason for the high costs are high expenses for logistics. The best vehicle sharing solution depends on the distance, price model (minute-based fee, subscription fee, extra costs for fuel etc.) and local road and bicycle connections. Some vehicle sharing companies also offer hourly-based or daily-based rates.

Prices for different vehicles for short distance in Berlin. Way from Hackescher Markt to Checkpoint Charlie (2.3 km by bicycle and 2.8 km on street) (Business Insider & Mydealz, 2019)

Legal Requirements

Relevant legal directives at the EU and national levels.
  • Parking fees and equality of all cars limit the freedom to operate.
  • Age limits used by different car sharing providers: Usually between 18 and 21 years of age or depending on the time holding a driving license.
  • Different European regulations regarding E-scooters (e.g., speed limit).

The creation of this solution has been supported by EU funding

Use Cases

Explore real-life examples of implementations of this Solution.

Mobility

ICT

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Car Sharing Platforms

GoMore and SnappCar are delivering Peer-to-Peer (P2P) car sharing platforms, making it simple to adopt a car-light lifestyle in the City of Stockholm.

Mobility

Electric Lightweight Vehicles – One for All

Electric multi-purpose vehicles, with a battery swapping system, are ideal for the inner city. This Use Case aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of operating such a theoretical model in a city through implementation of the Adaptive City Mobility (ACM) concept. 

Mobility

Electrified Light Vehicles Integration into Transport and Electricity Networks

ELVITEN demonstrated the usefulness of light electrified vehicles for urban transportation. Its focus was on bicycles, scooters, tricycles and quadricycles (EL-VS).

Mobility

On-Demand Mobility in Karlsruhe Region's Rural Areas

Integration of an on-demand service into the public transport system for residents of rural regions in Karlsruhe.

Mobility

ICT

Optimisation and Digitalisation of an Existing Regular Service in Appenzell, Switzerland

After the initial launch the service was booked by over 16,000 passengers. The advance booking function in particular is very popular and has been used for almost 90% of journeys. This allows residents and tourists in the region to plan their journeys ahead of time and safely.

Mobility

ICT

On-call company transport as a flexible and sustainable alternative to company cars

Thanks to digitalisation and optimisation, a total of 14 accessible vehicles have been successfully operating between the Bonn, Darmstadt and Frankfurt sites. Since then, the company transport service has offered Telekom employees a flexible and sustainable alternative to a company car.

Mobility

Digitalised ASL/ALT Transport in Rural Areas

The new 'Wittlich Shuttle' can be booked on demand and via the app. It has been successfully in use since 2018 and has seen an increase in passengers of up to 400% compared to the previous city bus. Even during the Corona crisis, the concept has proven to be safe, needs-based and flexible.

Mobility

Integrated on-demand mobility for a strong public transport system

The on-demand service has been successfully on the road since 2018 and was expanded to Billbrook in 2019. As a result, ioki Hamburg now not only improves the accessibility of public transport in the inner city, but also the connection in the surrounding areas (Stormarn and Harburg districts).

Mobility

Decision Support Tool for Shared Mobility Operators

Shared mobility can contribute to greener and more livable cities. The limited knowledge about their adoption and use patterns is an obstacle for better service planning and management. Nommon is developing an AI-based tool that anticipates demand levels to optimise shared mobility operators.

Mobility

Shared mobility app for more equal communities and smarter cities in Padua

Volvero is a drive sharing app that aims to improve the way people address their mobility needs by allowing owners to share their vehicles with drivers through a secure platform, bringing a significant reduction in environmental and social impact while improving mobility and inclusion.

Mobility

Driverless shared low speed vehicle in urban area

A driverless vehicle, that is based on a golf cart, provides a way for people to be transferred between a neighborhood in Tel Aviv. The solution includes the vehicles, a webapp to call the vehicle and set the destination and site management portal that provides KPI on the service

Mobility

AI-driven carpooling pilot for daily commuting in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain

Karos Mobility launched an AI-driven carpooling pilot for daily commuting in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain. Between September 2023 to February 2024, over 14.000 rides have been shared by over 1.000 users, and the pilot is now becoming a permanent long-term project for the city.

Mobility

ICT

Mobility Subscription on Local Travel in Stockholm

In Stockholm, UbiGo is developing and aiming to launch one of the world’s first real MaaS services. The service is built on a flexible subscription model that can meet the everyday travel needs of entire households.

Mobility

Social Responsibility

Development of a Mobility-Impaired Suitable E-Bike Sharing Scheme

The reduction of individual car use and the availability of multimodal mobility for everybody is a challenge for the future. The focus of this Use Case is on the development of a carrier e-bike for mobility-impaired people.

Mobility

Bike and Car Sharing Schemes in Turku

A pilot bike sharing system (BSS), with 300 bicycles and 37 stations, has been implemented in Turku. This measure will provide the first BSS in the Turku area.

Mobility

Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

Mobility

Vehicle Sharing Service in Mülheim

With the aim of enabling road users to travel their routes using the environmentally-friendly transport network and to rely less on their own car, the car sharing facility in Mülheim offers a range of different vehicles. This includes e-cars, e-bikes and also normal cars for long distance.

Mobility

Multifunctional Mobility Ticket in Cologne

A multi functional mobility app and ticket is launched in Cologne providing users of public transport the access to use shared cars, (e)-bikes, buses, trams etc. with one ticket. It is an enhancement of the existing subscription ticket enabling the travelers to also use the shared mobility services.

Mobility

Public bike sharing system in Tartu

With the aim of encouraging the use of bicycles and make this a considerable alternative to cars, the city of Tartu has implemented a city wide bike sharing scheme as part of the SmartEnCity Project. The system consists of public city bikes, parking lots with safety locks and a management system.

Mobility

Corporate Electric Car Sharing for University

The aim was to reduce staff using their own cars for university business, and to increase the use of Electric Vehicles at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The sharing scheme is managed by a third party enterprise through an online booking system.

Mobility

Leasing electric vans for estate management

To reduce carbon footprint and improve air quality, 7 diesel vans from the university estate management team of University of Manchester were replaced with new electric leasing vans. The vans are used for delivering mail and operational services.

Mobility

Green Parking Index in Combination with EV Car Sharing Pool

The Green Parking Index in Stockholm is designed to encourage alternative forms of transport, thus reducing the demand for the private parking places which must be provided when building new and renovating old housing in Stockholm.

Mobility

Shared E-Mobility System in Milan

Milan’s shared e-mobility system includes: e-cars, e-bikes, e-logistics vehicles, smart parking, e-vehicle charging, and condominium e-car sharing.

Mobility

Station bound district car sharing

With the aim to improve the sharing of green mobility solutions, 3-5 sharing cars are operated by several contractors in Strijp-S, Eindhoven.

Mobility

E-Car Sharing in social housing BWSG-Hauffgasse

E-Car sharing in the social neighbourhood is an innovative approach in the issue of e-mobility in social housing, contributing not only to the environmental goals but also to the community building as a strong societal element.

Mobility

E-Scooter sharing service in Stockholm

To provide a new form of green micro mobility to Stockholm citizens, VOI introduced shared dockless electric scooter sharing service in the city.

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