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The current EU regulation on emissions for cars is the strictest worldwide. Along with further restrictions the thresholds cannot be met with conventional cars only anymore. One alternative technology, reducing the local emissions, are electric vehicles (EVs). For a successful market penetration, a functioning infrastructure is necessary. Customers rank inadequate access to charging stations as the third most serious barrier to EV purchase, after price and driving range (Mckinsey, 2018). Therefore, public charging systems for electric vehicles support the electrification of urban mobility systems. While price and driving range improves each year, chargers can be of different power ranges and charging technologies. In addition, they can be smartly integrated into the local grid and provide information about the system for customers, operators and other stakeholders. For the user experience, it is recommended to include a payment and authentication system, which facilitates the access and enhances the transparency of the charging process. It is also an issue of access to charging stations, as charging is performed while the car is parked, and the possibility to book parking spots (adjacent to the charging station) is legally challenging in many countries. Dedicated parking spots for EV’s only do not solve the issue, as another (fully charged) EV can park for long term on the spot for which one account for charging after arrival.

Problems to be solved

Growing charging-demand for EVs Carbon Emissions Air pollution


The main goal of Public Charging System for Electric Vehicles is to offer charging facilities for electric vehicles. Whereas some benefits are likely to be fulfiled with a basic implementation of the solution, the fulfilment of the potential benefits depends on the functions implemented in a specific project.

Main benefits
  • Promoting sustainable private transport models

  • Reducing local air pollution

Potential benefits
  • Reducing GHG emissions

  • Promoting sustainable behavior

  • Reducing operation costs

  • Improving social integration

  • Enhances grid stability


Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.

Mandatory functions
    charging vehicle

    Allowing vehicles to be charges in public space

    accessing charger

    Products theat give useres access to the charge points (such as RFID-Cards, Apps)

Potential functions
    managing charging system

    Products optimizing the energy consumption and prices towards an efficient charging process

    moving passenger by electric vehicle

    All kinds of electric vehicles, such as busses, cars and bikes

    managing energy supply

    Prosucts managing the grid connection of the charge point(s)

    paying for charging

    Products allowing the user to pay for the charging, e.g. by credit cars, ePayment or cash

    informing customers about charging system

    Products informing the customer about the service (e.g. occupancy, prices, processes)

Products offering these functions

E-Mobility Hub Fleet Charging Simulation

While all traffic is being electrified, mobility hubs are transforming too. New e-mobility hubs must serve all kind of charging needs for different fleets, today and in the future.


Charging apps let drivers of electric vehicles conveniently access nearly the entire public and web-enabled charging infrastructure.


There are two primary types of non-residential EV chargers: AC and DC. In addition, wireless charging systems are being developed but not yet at any significant scale.


In this system, an in-car converter converts AC to direct current to charge the battery. It is known as “normal” charge at around 20kW. There are two levels of AC charging, though Level 2 is the only one suitable for public charging stations. As of 2020, there were 200,000 public AC charging stations in EU member states. Charging time is generally 4-8 hours.

(Mckinsey, 2018)


DC charging is the “fast” charging option, operating at powers ranging from 25kW to 350kW,  and is also known as level 3 charging. The charging system converts the AC from the grid to DC before the current enters the vehicle. As of 2020, there were 25,000 public DC charging stations in EU member states. Charging time is generally 20 – 30 minutes.

(Mckinsey, 2018)


These systems are relatively nascent technologies and have not yet been produced at any meaningful scale. They use electromagnetic waves to charge batteries, usually involving a charging pad connected to a wall socket and a plate attached to the vehicle. The available technology currently aligns with level 2 chargers and has 11kW of power.

(Mckinsey, 2018)

City Context

  • Large number of electric vehicles

  • Lower numbers of single-family homes means greater need for public charging

  • Dense, urban cities with high amounts of on-street and commercial garage parking face increased public charging demand


Government Initiatives

Countries in Europe have a variety of subsidies and incentives for building EV charging infrastructure. For example, Germany offers the following for public charging stations:

  • A subsidy of up to €3,000 for purchasing charging stations of up to 22 kW.
  • A subsidy of up to €12,000 for purchasing DC chargers up to 100 kW.
  • A subsidy of up to €30,000 for purchasing DC chargers above 100 kW.
  • Connections to the grid are subsidized by up to €5,000 for low voltage and €50,000 for medium voltage grid connections.

(Noyens, 2020)

Stakeholder Mapping

Stakeholder Map for public charging infrastructure (BABLE, 2021)

Market Potential


Average implementation time: 0.5 - 1 years

Initial investment amount: 50,000 - 250,000 Euro for one or two fast-charging stations

Market Overview

The market of electric vehicles is a steadily growing market. Most public charging stations are funded and promoted by governments.

Costs and Charging Time

In general, increasing costs shorten the charging time. One reason is that increasing charging power requires grid updates, which lead to significantly increased investment costs.

But besides the increasing costs, low charging times allow more people to use the charger per day. That is why all public chargers from 3.6 kW AC to 62.5 DC, compete on a comparable cost level with approximately 1370–1800 EUR/kW regarding the costs per capacity. The 250 DC chargers cost level is less than half of this. But that applies only to a (fictive) full-time operation.

A fast charging station is designed for up to 75 users per day, while an AC charger for a maximum of four users per day. Hence, almost 20 slow chargers would be needed to equal one fast charging station. As DC-fast chargers are fully stretched they are the cheapest public option. Maintenance cost may be significant for on-street charging equipment, which is one reason for the low cost of a home charger.

Cost Structure

In general, there is an industry consensus that the cost of public charging units is trending downwards and will continue to decrease. However, installation costs are highly variable and there is no consensus among industry stakeholders about the direction of future installation costs (US Department of Energy, 2015).

Charging Ports usually need an investment of

  • Level 2 AC ranges from 400 to 6500 USD, or
  • DC fast charging ranges from 10,000 to 40,000 USD

and result in variable costs for installation of

  • Level 2 AC ranges from 600 to 12700 USD, or
  • DC fast charging ranges from 4,000 to 51,000 USD.

The following graphic gives an overview of different cost ranges.

Ballpark Cost Ranges (US DOE, 2015)

Legal Requirements

1) Regulation limiting freedom to operate:

Regulations on selling energy consumption-based:

  • European regulation 2014/31/EU: Provision of non-automatic weighing instruments
  • 2014/32/EU: European Measuring Instruments Directive

(Intertek, 2015)

2) Safety regulations:

  • IEC 61851: Minimal electric security requirements for production and installation of charging infrastructure 
  • 2004/108/EG: Regulation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
  • 2006/95/EC: Security Standards of the low-voltage directive 
  • ISO 19363: Inductive charging, requirements for cars and safety regulations

(Intertek, 2013)

The creation of this solution has been supported by EU funding

Use Cases


Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 



Impulso VLCi: Electric vehicle recharging system

The Impulso VLCi project has a comprehensive intelligent system for the management of electric vehicle charging in the area of the city of Valencia.


ChargeBIG Charging Infrastructure with 100 Charging Points

In the company car park of MAHLE, 100 AC charging points have been installed for employee and company cars in order to contribute to the reduction of air pollution in Stuttgart. The installation serves as a demonstration and a real lab for further development of EV charging infrastructure.


Clean and silent night deliveries

In order to improve citizens' quality of life, the city has adapted regulations for delivery services, taking them to off peak hours.



EV Charging Infrastructure in Nottingham

The installation of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure, allowing Nottingham to increase their green bus network from 45 to 58 E-Buses.


Greencity in Zurich

Greencity is the first urban district in Switzerland to meet the conditions of the 2000-watt society and represents a largely grid-independent area, relying on 100% supply from locally generated renewable energy sources and an innovative and environmentally friendly mobility concept.



Developing Smart Mobility Solutions in Antwerp

In order to further encourage and facilitate the use of electric vehicles, both private and shared, a policy note was made on electric charging for citizens and employees as an answer to the increasing demand of electirc mobility and charging infrastructure.



Charging Master Plan for Electric Vehicles in Stockholm

The City of Stockholm aims to develop a charging Master Plan to oversee and complement the infrastructural development for EVs charging, in order to ensure that it effectively meets the needs of all drivers, including business usage.



Vehicle to X (V2X) Charging for Electric Vehicles

In Barcelona, an innovative form of Vehicle-to-X (V2X) charging for Electric Vehicles has been implemented. This can increase the renewable energy penetration, energy storage, grid flexibility and facilitate energy management optimization.



Developing charging infrastructure to promote e-mobility in Barcelona

Endesa Energía has implemented five fast charging stations in Barcelona with the aim of promoting clean transport in the city.



Normal charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

Electric Vehicles increase in share of car sales and charging infrastructure is important to facilitate the transition to an improved vehicle fleet in cities. In Stockholm five to ten normal charging stations  have installed to satisfy citizen needs.



Fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

In Stockholm, a fast charging station within the GrowSmarter project is established by Fortum at the parking facility by McDonald’s restaurant. Fast charging stations could provide electric vehicles with fully charged batteries in less than 30 minutes. 


Smart Charging for Electric Vehicles in Eindhoven

In order to promote use of Electric Vehicles and better manage the charging infrastructure,a smart charging system was developed. 6 Type-2 AC chargers installed in Strijp-S with two charging point. Peak load management system/charging management system is included in the project.



E-Charging Station with remote control in Mülheim

The solution aims to promote the replacement of fossil fueled vehicles by facilitating use of EVs. The charging infrastructure enables the tenants to charge their EVs. It is implemented in collaboration with various shared E-mobility providers rendering the use of a private car unnecessary.


Dundee Open Data Analytics - EV ChargeHub Use

Collaborating with Dundee City Council, Creative Dundee drives open data aligned with the 8th City Data Cluster. The work spans models, toolkits, and methodologies, openly sharing cultural insights to aid decisions and offer a versatile analysis toolkit.

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