Challenge / Goal
In a rapidly urbanising world cities need to become smarter to respond to citizen needs and to reduce their envrionmental foot print. In Stockholm Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) have doubled in number each year for the past four years and are expected to continue to do so for the years to come. Electric vehicles are more energy efficient and powered with electricity which can significantly reduce emissions.
There are different ways of recharging PEVs. The most common is to charge the car battery over a longer period, usually overnight at a low current. Fast charging, on the contrary, allows for an almost empty battery to be fully charged in less than half an hour at a high power charging-station. While low current charging is done while the vehicle is parked, the speed of fast charging is similar to fuelling a petrol or diesel car. Fast charger is crucial for commercial fleets like taxi and courier companies who are the most frequent users. Within the GrowSmarter project, the city of Stockholm aimed to facilitate sustainable e-mobility. Fast charging infrastructure is therefore important to facilitate the transition to an improved vehicle fleet in cities.
The fast charging station within the GrowSmarter poject in Stockholm is established by Fortum together with McDonald’s at the parking facility by McDonald’s restaurant very close to the Valla Torg. The fast charging station could provide electric vehicles with fully charged batteries in less than 30 minutes. It offers three 'standards' for charging: CHAdeMO,CCS, andAC 43 or AC 22.
- CHAdeMO is a charging standard developed by Japanese car manufacturers, delivering up to 50 kW DC via a special connector. The name CHAdeMO is a grammatical pun, which in Japanese means roughly “While you drink a cup of tea”. Tesla vehicles can use CHAdeMO fast charging if they bring an adapter.
- CCS, Combined Charging Standard, has been developed jointly by German and North American car manufacturers. This is an AC charge with a multiple purpose connector that also supports normal charging (Mennekes type 2-kontakt), 50 kW. The EU has decided that CCS standard is the minimum requirement for all new and refurbished public fast charging stations from 2018.
- AC 43 or AC 22 is a fast charging standard developed by French car manufacturers. As the name indicates, this is AC current charge of up to 43 kW or 22 kW.
The city of Stockholm is using a business model based on access rights agreements signed between the city and electric utility companies.The access rights agreements have not required any payment for the company supplying the fast charger so far.The agreements are signed either for three or five years.The fast charger suppliers grant actors the right to use space on public land for fast chargers and related installations. The actors themselves finance the charging equipment, power supply and necessary power lines, as well as signage and marking-out of the area.
There are also some other fast chargers in Stockholm that have been established on privateland. In these cases other types of agreements have been signed between the operator and the land owner without any involvement from the city.The operator may charge for the service. The price in Stockholm is currently between 0.20 - 0.25 €/minute with no special parking fee for the fast chargers.
Charging electric vehicles
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