Smart Rainwater Harvesting
Clear evidence of techniques used for rainwater harvesting date back to nearly 4000 years ago. However, the concept of rainwater harvesting may date back almost 6000 years in Ancient China ( Che-Ani et al., 2009 ). It is evident that rainwater harvesting has been part of human’s history and identity. With modernization and massive urbanization, rainwater harvesting has now become part of the city’s identity. To increase efficiency, the concept of Smart Rainwater Harvesting is being introduced around leading cities. Smart Rainwater Harvesting is characterized by collecting real-time data via sensors in water sources, collection phases, storage phases, and application phases (Behdazian et al., 2018). The data is gathered in a centralized data collection unit where it is monitored and processed. The processed data is then used to make decisions and adapt to the specific circumstances. Smart Rainwater Harvesting systems by automated methods can release stormwater prior to rainfall occurring to enlarge the water captivity levels ( Behdazian et al., 2018 ). The main goal of rainwater harvesting systems is to collect and store rainwater during precipitation events for usage in non-drinking water applications ( Pradhan & Sahoo, 2019 ). The smart part of this concept consists of the development of communicating assets integrated with the overall system ( Xu et al., 2020 ). The system makes use of low-cost sensors combined with innovative communication technologies. The technological focus enables several new possibilities for the management of urban water infrastructure in a smart city framework. The performance of the system is strongly dependent on and interconnected with the quality of the weather forecast. The amount of precipitation and patterns of rainfall are integrated into the control strategy to determine discharge volume and closing time respectively ( Pradhan & Sahoo, 2019 ) .