Bike sharing

Bike sharing provides users with on-demand access to bicycles at various pick-up and drop-off locations for one-way or roundtrip travel. Bike-sharing fleets are commonly deployed in a network within a metropolitan region, city, neighborhood, employment center, and/or university campus.

Modern bike-sharing programs, such as those launched in France in 2005, use communications technology to hire out bikes to members who pay membership and usage fees. Today, there are nearly 1,000 bike-sharing systems worldwide, which fall mainly into two categories:

■ Dock-based systems allow users to pick up and return bikes from IT-enabled docks or stations located throughout a service area. This is the most widespread form of public bike sharing.

Dockless or GPS-based systems put GPS technology directly into the bikes themselves as opposed to docks. Bikes sometimes have their own locks, allowing users to secure them to any public bike rack within a predetermined service area.

Some of the most popular providers are Mobike or Ofo.

Electric bike-sharing systems are also very popular. Some examples are Bycyklen in Copenhagen and the BiciMAD in Madrid which were the two first pioneering cities in Europe. An e-bike works just like a regular bike with the added bonus of an electric motor that kicks in to help with pedaling and, most importantly, gives an extra push-up on hills.

Bike sharing works best as a first-last mile transportation strategy in mixed-land-use neighborhoods and near public transport hubs in walking corridors with high pedestrian traffic. The availability of a good bike infrastructure, such as protected bike lanes, is another crucial determinant of bike-sharing success.

Kick scooters

In terms of urban mobility, the electric shared (kick) scooter is an extraordinary tool. With just a frame and an electric motor, it is so simple to produce that it has the potential to revolutionize the way we move in cities.

But it is not about how easy they are to build, it is about the complete flexibility they offer. They are practically an extension of our feet, allowing us to move anywhere in the city.

However, kick scooters have been a success and a failure at the same time. They are the perfect example of the transition taking place in the urban mobility landscape. When they were first introduced, they encountered problems such as vandalism or simply misuse. It was not uncommon to see them thrown on the ground in every corner. With time, people have become used to them and have learned to use them responsibly.

In fact, they became so popular and, because kick scooters are relatively affordable, many decided to buy their own, shifting back to a more sustainable ownership-based mobility.

The companies behind both kickscooters and e-scooters are usually start-ups. Some of the most popular providers are DOTT and Lime.

Scooter sharing has been gradually gaining popularity in recent years.

It allows individuals to access scooters by joining an organization that maintains a fleet of scooters at various locations. Scooter-sharing models can include a variety of motorized and non-motorised scooter types. The scooter service provider typically provides gasoline or charge, maintenance, and may consist of parking as part of the service. Users typically pay a fee each time they use one. Trips can be roundtrip or one-way, although they are usually one-way.