Challenge / Goal
This pilot project aimed to find new and innovative technological solutions to promote the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed generation (DG) in smart grid systems.
In particular, the purpose was to develop, implement and test in the field innovative devices to demonstrate the technical feasibility of increasing the monitoring of the distribution grid and the controllability of RES connected at lower voltage levels. DG and RES do not currently participate in real-time management of the grid and so to enable DG to become active players in the electricity system, it is necessary to improve the observability of the whole grid and to allow distributed energy resources (DER) and RES to provide ancillary services. The contribution of these services must also be analysed for accuracy and reliability.
The final goal was to explore the capability of hydropower stations connected to the distribution grid and located in an alpine region, to be centrally controlled from the Transmission System Operator's (TSO) supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) network. Thus it can be seen if they can provide a contribution for automatice Frequency Restoration Reserve (aFRR) and voltage regulation.
The functionalities developed in the project are:
1) The observability module, to have an accurate real-time observation of the Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) sources. Measurements and estimations of the power of the plants located at distribution level are aggregated and provided to the TSO, to achieve a continuous and adequate monitoring of the grid.
2) The voltage regulation, used to achieve a hierarchical control of the reactive power regulation through generators connected to both High Voltage (HV) and MV grids.
3)The power/frequency regulation, in particular, the aFRR, by generators connected to MV grids, currently not included in the Italian market.
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