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Vehicle sharing systems allow customers to use various vehicles without owning them. There are different types of vehicle sharing systems on the market. Differences can be the vehicle shared, like car sharing, bike sharing, scooter sharing or electric vehicle sharing. Besides the type of the vehicle, one main difference between vehicle sharing systems is the vehicle holder. Most commonly, the operator owns the vehicles he shares with his customers. Another opportunity is peer-to-peer vehicle sharing, where the users share their vehicles. For each vehicle sharing system, it is necessary to ensure the accessibility of the vehicles and to manage the location and operation of the vehicles. 

 

Main Benefits

  • Reducing use of fossils, 4

  • Increasing Safety, 12

  • Recycling waste, 65

  • Reducing Operation Costs, 345

Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.

Mandatory Functions

Potential Functions

    charing shared electric vehicles
    connecting vehicles of the shared fleet

Business Model

Implementation

Average implementation time: < 2 years 

Initial investment amount: around 2,000,000 Euro for a system with 150 cars

   

Market Overview

Most of the vehicle sharing systems which are already implemented depend on agreements between a car-sharing company and the local city administration, especially regarding parking policies. Existing use cases have proven to be highly successful in cities. According to Navigant Consulting, the industry worldwide currently has an estimated size of $1.1 billion and is expected to grow to $6.2 billion by 2024.

(Korey Clark, 2016)

    Pricing

The most common business model for vehicle sharing systems around Europe is to offer of free-floating rentals. Thereby, the cars can be parked park in specially designated parking spaces or standard parking areas with a permit from the local municipality. The customers are charged in a per-minute base and a subscription fee. The minute-based fee usually varies between 0,2 €/minute and 0,5 €/minute, depending on the vehicle sharing system and the vehicle used. The subscription fee typically amounts 0 € to 20 €. Some vehicle sharing companies also offer hourly-based or daily-based rates.

 Besides the revenue of the charges, the cars can offer a marketing channel for the vehicles within the fleet. The primary costs of a vehicle sharing system are the initial costs for vehicles and the chargers if necessary. The operational costs are mostly the costs of fuelling, maintaining and cleaning the vehicles as well as expenses related to customer service and insurance.

(Dr. Scott Le Vine et al., 2014), (Francesco Ferro et al., 2015)

Business Model Canvas

The picture shows a typical Canvas for a vehicle sharing system. It gives an overview of the business model discussed above. Some of the aspects are not necessary within the basic version of the solution vehicle sharing system, but they come along with implementing some of the additional could-have functions. 

(Francesco Ferro et al., 2015)

Driving Factors

     Supporting Infrastructure

A public charging infrastructure for electric vehicles can be supportive as electric vehicles might be part of the shared vehicle fleet.

Legal Requirements

  • Parking fees and equality of all cars limit the freedom to operate
  • Age limits used by different car sharing providers: Usually between 18 and 21 years of age or depending on the time holding a driving license

Use Cases

Vehicle Sharing Service in Mülheim
With the aim of enabling road users to travel their routes using the environmentally-friendly transport network and to rely less on their own car, the car sharing facility in Mülheim offers a range of different vehicles. This includes e-cars, e-bikes and also normal cars for long distance.
Public bike sharing system in Tartu
With the aim of encouraging the use of bicycles and make this a considerable alternative to cars, the city of Tartu has implemented a city wide bike sharing scheme as part of the SmartEnCity Project. The system consists of public city bikes, parking lots with safety locks and a management system.
Corporate Electric car sharing for University
The aim was to reduce staff using their own cars for university business and to increase the use of EVs at the MMU. Two 30kW Nissan electric cars were purchased and two additional charging points installed. The sharing scheme is managed by a third party enterprise through an online booking system.
Green parking index in combination with car sharing pool with EV
The Green parking index in Stockholm is designed to encourage alternative forms of transport, thus reducing the demand for the private parking places which must be provided when building new and renovating old housing in Stockholm.
Shared e-mobility system in Milan
Milan’s shared e-mobility system includes: e-cars, e-bikes, e-logistics vehicles, smart parking, e-vehicle charging, and condominium e-car sharing.
Station bound district car sharing
With the aim to improve the sharing of green mobility solutions, 3-5 sharing cars are operated by several contractors in Strijp-S, Eindhoven.
E-Car Sharing in social housing BWSG-Hauffgasse
E-Car sharing in the social neighbourhood is an innovative approach in the issue of e-mobility in social housing, contributing not only to the environmental goals but also to the community building as a strong societal element.
E-Scooter sharing service in Stockholm
To provide a new form of green micro mobility to Stockholm citizens, VOI introduced shared dockless electric scooter sharing service in the city.
Mobility Station in Mülheim
The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 
Bike Sharing and Car Sharing Schemes in Turku
A pilot bike sharing system (BSS), with 300 bicycles and 37 stations, has been designed, procured and implemented in Turku.This measure provided the first BSS in Turku. This also enabled car sharing systems to be offered in Turku.
Development of an integrated e-bike sharing scheme
In Munich, a carrier e-trike for mobility-impaired people and a concept for the integration of an e-trike in MVG bike-sharing system is developed.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Car Sharing Platforms
GoMore and Snappcar are delivering Peer-to-Peer (P2P) car sharing platforms, making it simple to adopt a car light lifestyle in the City of Stockholm.

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