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Description

Vehicle sharing systems allow customers to use various vehicles without the need to own each vehicle. There are different types of vehicle sharing systems on the market. Differences can include the type of vehicle shared, like car sharing, bike sharing, scooter sharing or electric vehicle sharing. In addition to the type of the vehicle, one main difference between vehicle sharing systems is the vehicle holder. Most commonly, the operator owns the vehicles that are then shared with the users. Another opportunity is peer-to-peer vehicle sharing, in which the citizens share their own vehicles. For each vehicle sharing system, it is necessary to ensure the accessibility of the vehicles and to manage the location and operation of the vehicles. 

The growth of vehicle sharing systems is driven by urbanisation, increasing smartphone penetration, growth in internet of things (IoT), climate change, regulations, growing awareness about the environment and personal health etc. (SUNRISE, 2020)

Problems to be solved

GHG emissions

congestion

Large space consumption of parking areas

Deficits in intermodality and accesibility

High investment costs for purchasing vehicles

Pollution

 

Benefits

The main goal of Vehicle Sharing Systems is to reduce the private vehicle ownership. Thereby, it ireduces the number of vehicles in an urban area while increasing the number of flexible services for citizens. Besides that, the solution achieves the benefits listed below. Whereas some benefits are likely to be fulfiled with a basic implementation of the solution, the fulfilment of the potential benefits depends on the functions implemented in a specific project.

Main Benefits
  • Increasing safety

  • Reducing operation costs

  • Reducing private car ownership

Functions

Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each Solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the Solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.

Mandatory Functions
    accessing service

    Products, that enable users to access the vehicles (e.g. via an app)

    moving passengers with shared vehicles

    Vehicles that move the useres, such as bikes, scooters or cars

    paying for vehicle sharing system

    Services, that enable a payment of the services (e.g. distance- or time-based)

    managing vehicle fleet

    Products, that manage and coordinate the vehicles of the fleet

    informing customers about vehicle sharing

    Products, that inform the customer about the services (e.g. apps, websites)

Potential Functions
    charing shared electric vehicles

    If electric vehicels are within the shared fleet, charging facilities are neccessary

    connecting vehicles of the shared fleet

    Vehicle to vehicle communication can be used within the fleet

    connecting different vehicle sharing systems

    To improve the usability mobility cards or other instruments can be used to give users access to several vehicle

Products offering these functions

Fleet Management

Comprehensive service portfolio gives fleet managers a constant, real-time overview of all vehicle data so they can optimize operational processes.

Variants

There are many different variants of vehicle sharing systems what differ in degree of shared usage and flexibility of usage,

Different variants of a vehicle sharing system (statista, 2020)

Vehicle sharing systems like Car sharing and car rentals have the longest distance (15+km). Ride hailing is normally used for distances between 5-15km. Short distances between 0-5km are often done with shared bikes or scooters.

Different variants of vehicle sharing systems by disctance (statista, 2020)

(SUNRISE, 2020, statista, 2020)

Description

Professional service provider offer an organised joint use of cars at different stations in the city in reserved parking spots. Users pick up the car at a station and return it after use to the same station. Electric cars can also be offered. The system functions mostly with memberships for the customers. The provider is responsible for the maintenance and repair of the vehicles.

The example of Bremen shows that through 390 shared cars ca. 6.000 private cars have been taken off roads which equals 100mio€ that otherwise would have to been invested in underground car parks.  Car-sharing in general reduces costs for investment, insurance, parking and maintenance.

Use Cases

Corporate Electric Car Sharing for University

The aim was to reduce staff using their own cars for university business and to increase the use of EVs at the MMU. Two 30kW Nissan electric cars were purchased and two additional charging points installed. The sharing scheme is managed by a third party enterprise through an online booking system.

Station bound district car sharing

With the aim to improve the sharing of green mobility solutions, 3-5 sharing cars are operated by several contractors in Strijp-S, Eindhoven.

E-Car Sharing in social housing BWSG-Hauffgasse

E-Car sharing in the social neighbourhood is an innovative approach in the issue of e-mobility in social housing, contributing not only to the environmental goals but also to the community building as a strong societal element.

Description

Free-floating cars can be picked up wherever the previous user parked it in the predefined operational area. The cars can therefore be uses one-way. The locations of the cars are shown in the app. The system only allows reservations a short time in advance which enables high flexibility. Compared to station-based services, free floating is very expensive (e.g., 24€/8,5€ for 2 hours). Both types of car-sharing have only small effects on car ownership because every second user also has his own car.

Description

This system describes the sharing of privately owned vehicles that normally are only used for one hour a day. Therefore, car-sharing can use resources more efficiently and share costs between owner and users. New service platforms bring the parties together and manage bookings and payments.

Use Cases

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Car Sharing Platforms

GoMore and Snappcar are delivering Peer-to-Peer (P2P) car sharing platforms, making it simple to adopt a car light lifestyle in the City of Stockholm.

Description

Bike-sharing services are well established worldwide and are used for many different occasions. E-bikes can be integrated but require higher investments because of the charging infrastructure. Like cars bicycles can be shared station-based and free-floating. Moreover, hybrid systems are used. A locking system can be integrated in the docking station or in the app. Bike-sharing can be run by the city or private providers. The benefits of bike-sharing are the missing investment costs and the ability to avoid crowded streets. Aside from beneficial effects on the health through reduced emissions, users also profit from the (regular) movement.

Use Cases

Public bike sharing system in Tartu

With the aim of encouraging the use of bicycles and make this a considerable alternative to cars, the city of Tartu has implemented a city wide bike sharing scheme as part of the SmartEnCity Project. The system consists of public city bikes, parking lots with safety locks and a management system.

Description

To also provide a sustainable transport option for heavy or large items, cargo bikes are already implemented in many cities. The differ between having electric support or not, having the cargobox in the front or in the back, charging at a station or private, etc. Cargo bikes are especially seen as an alternative for last mile delivery because they are environmentally friendly, space-saving and congestion-free.

Use Cases

Offering a test fleet of e-bikes and cargo bikes

This measure consists in offering companies and residents in Årsta the possibility to test E-cargo bikes for a limited period of time in order to find out whether, and to what extent, these vehicles provide a viable mobility option.

E-Bike Sharing for the District

A first E-Bike terminal was opened in April 2018 at the central cemetery of Vienna. A second terminal is at the mobility point. 12 E-Bikes and a Cargo-Bike are in operation. The E-Bikes are available via the SIMBike App or through a chip card offered at the spot. Sycube developed the whole system.

Description

Mopeds or motor scooters travel faster and more efficiently on urban roads than cars. Mopeds are mostly free-floating and are manage through an app. The batteries are recharged by the motor scooter providers. The usually allowed distance us between 50 and 100 km. The speed is generally limited to ca. 45km/h because of driving licenses . E-Mopeds with higher speed are also in use, e.g. in Madrids police with up to 90km/h.

Description

E-Scooters are new on the market although now available in many cities. They are often designed as free-floating which leads to many conflicts because of random parking which creates barriers on pavements. The “juicers” collect the scooters for recharging and distribute the vehicles afterwards in the city. E-Scooters are especially useful for the last mile e.g., for commuters or tourists. The costs normally consist of a unlock fee (ca. 1€) and prices per minute (ca. 20ct). Thus, they can be regarded as the most expensive option of shared mobility.

Use Cases

E-Scooter sharing service in Stockholm

To provide a new form of green micro mobility to Stockholm citizens, VOI introduced shared dockless electric scooter sharing service in the city.

Description

Aside from ride sharing with family members etc. also ride sharing software can be used to find someone to share the vehicle mostly as a regular commuter alternative or for occasional long-distance journeys.

Description

Ride hailing is an alternative to taxi and uses app-based booking platforms. The app shows the location of potential private drivers in real time. In the EU only professional drivers are allowed (e.g., Uber).

Description

Several passengers with different destinations can be transported by bus-on-demand services. They often use minibuses and a dynamic pooling algorithm that assigns the passengers to an existing ride. Clients are picked up and transported together on a completely dynamic route which leads to lower prices and more time needed for a ride compared to taxis.

City Context

Vehicle sharing systems are part of “mobility as a service” (MaaS). It describes the approach to provide access to various mobility services, such as public transport, car sharing, cabs etc. in one integrated, digital mobility offering, which can cover all individual transport demands. The user enters a start location and destination into the app, which then shows different options on how to travel. MaaS approaches are implemented in a growing number of cities to fully exploit the full potential of shared mobility.

(SUNRISE, 2020)

Supporting Factors

  1. Already existing mobility stations – starting point for an area-wide implementation
  2. Dense cities enable a higher number of users and a more efficient and convenient distribution of vehicles and stations.
  3. A public charging infrastructure for electric vehicles can support the business model as electric vehicles might be part of the shared vehicle fleet.
  4. Available parking areas
  5. Proper bike lanes and other connected infrastructure

Stakeholder Mapping

Stakholder mapping for vehicle sharing systems (BABLE, 2021)

Market Potential

Global Car-sharing revenue forecast in million USD (statista, 2020)

The different segments of vehicle sharing show high growth rates. The average growth rate of car-sharing is 7.6% per year and of bike-sharing 14.5%. The penetration rates are very low. Therefore, there is high potential for an expansion.

Innovation diffusion curve for Car-sharing for 2019 (statista, 2020)

The overall number of car sharing users is continously increasing and is predicted to be 36 million in 2025.

Developement of global car sharing users (statista, 2020)

Moped sharing is implemented in 122 cities in 22 countries and had 9 million users in 2020 (compared to 4 million in 2019). The number of mopeds increased about 38.000 mopeds to 104.000 mopeds over all in 2020.

(unumotors, 2021)

 

 

Business Model

Pricing

A comparison of vehicle sharing providers in Berlin shows that E-Scooters are sometimes even more expensive than car-sharing. The reason for the high costs are high expenses for logistics. The best vehicle sharing solution depends on the distance, price model (minute-based fee, subscription fee, extra costs for fuel etc.) and local road and bicycle connections. Some vehicle sharing companies also offer hourly-based or daily-based rates.

Prices for different vehicles for short distance in Berlin. Way from Hackescher Markt to Checkpoint Charlie (2.3 km by bicycle and 2.8 km on street) (Business Insider & Mydealz, 2019)

 

 

Cost Structure

The primary costs of a vehicle sharing system are the initial costs for vehicles and the chargers, if necessary. The operational costs are mostly the costs of fuelling, maintaining and cleaning the vehicles as well as expenses related to customer service and insurance.

The implementation costs for bike sharing systems are ca. 2.500€-3.000€ per bike. They consist of: station building (70%), bicycles (17%), operation equipment (6%), communication (5%), and management (2%). The maintenance costs for bike sharing systems are ca. 1.500-2.500€ per year. They consist of: redistribution of bicycles (30%), maintenance of bicycles (22%), maintenance of stations (20%), back-end system (14%), management (13%) and replacement of bicycles and stations (1%). (OBIS, 2011)

 The costs for car-sharing depend on the number of cars, the needed charging stations, the implementation, the maintenance, etc. Charging stations costs around 700 to 5.000€. The costs of electric cars start at around 24.000€. (DGRV, 2021)

E-Scooter (kickboards) can be charged on normal sockets. If stations are used for E-scooters in public saces, it is often to organize the public space and not for charging. The price for E-Scooters for private uses is between 400 and 2000€. (verivox, 2021)

The implementation of vehicle sharing systems is often bundled at mobility stations that are managed by the city or public transport provider. On example is a mobility station in Rendsburg, Germany with bicycle parking, a bench, a repair-station for bicycles, lighting, opportunity for bike sharing, one parking spot for car-sharing and signs. With construction the costs add up to 84.500€. (KielRegion, 2020)

Legal Requirements

  • Parking fees and equality of all cars limit the freedom to operate
  • Age limits used by different car sharing providers: Usually between 18 and 21 years of age or depending on the time holding a driving license
  • Different European regulations regarding E-scooters (e.g., speed limit)

The creation of this Solution has been supported by EU funding

Use Cases

Vehicle Sharing Service in Mülheim

With the aim of enabling road users to travel their routes using the environmentally-friendly transport network and to rely less on their own car, the car sharing facility in Mülheim offers a range of different vehicles. This includes e-cars, e-bikes and also normal cars for long distance.

Public bike sharing system in Tartu

With the aim of encouraging the use of bicycles and make this a considerable alternative to cars, the city of Tartu has implemented a city wide bike sharing scheme as part of the SmartEnCity Project. The system consists of public city bikes, parking lots with safety locks and a management system.

Corporate Electric Car Sharing for University

The aim was to reduce staff using their own cars for university business and to increase the use of EVs at the MMU. Two 30kW Nissan electric cars were purchased and two additional charging points installed. The sharing scheme is managed by a third party enterprise through an online booking system.

Green parking index in combination with car sharing pool with EV

The Green parking index in Stockholm is designed to encourage alternative forms of transport, thus reducing the demand for the private parking places which must be provided when building new and renovating old housing in Stockholm.

Shared e-mobility system in Milan

Milan’s shared e-mobility system includes: e-cars, e-bikes, e-logistics vehicles, smart parking, e-vehicle charging, and condominium e-car sharing.

Station bound district car sharing

With the aim to improve the sharing of green mobility solutions, 3-5 sharing cars are operated by several contractors in Strijp-S, Eindhoven.

E-Car Sharing in social housing BWSG-Hauffgasse

E-Car sharing in the social neighbourhood is an innovative approach in the issue of e-mobility in social housing, contributing not only to the environmental goals but also to the community building as a strong societal element.

E-Scooter sharing service in Stockholm

To provide a new form of green micro mobility to Stockholm citizens, VOI introduced shared dockless electric scooter sharing service in the city.

Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

Bike Sharing and Car Sharing Schemes in Turku

A pilot bike sharing system (BSS), with 300 bicycles and 37 stations, has implemented in Turku. This measure will provide the first BSS in Turku.

Development of an integrated e-bike sharing scheme

The reduction of the individual car use and the availability of multimodal mobility for everybody is a challenge for the future. The focus of this Use Case is on the development of a carrier e-bike for mobility-impaired people.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Car Sharing Platforms

GoMore and Snappcar are delivering Peer-to-Peer (P2P) car sharing platforms, making it simple to adopt a car light lifestyle in the City of Stockholm.

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