Privacy Notice

Welcome on BABLE

We put great importance to data protection and therefore use the data you provide to us with upmost care. You can handle the data you provide to us in your personal dashboard. You will find our complete regulations on data protection and clarification of your rights in our privacy notice . By using the website and its offers and navigating further, you accept the regulations of our privacy notice and terms and conditions.



The current EU regulation on emissions for cars is the strictest worldwide. Along with further restrictions the thresholds cannot be met with conventional cars only anymore. One alternative technology, reducing the local emissions, are electric vehicles (EVs). For a successful market penetration, a functioning infrastructure is necessary. Customers rank inadequate access to charging stations as the third most serious barrier to EV purchase, after price and driving range (Mckinsey, 2018). Therefore, public charging systems for electric vehicles support the electrification of urban mobility systems. While price and driving range improves each year, chargers can be of different power ranges and charging technologies. In addition, they can be smartly integrated into the local grid and provide information about the system for customers, operators and other stakeholders. For the user experience, it is recommended to include a payment and authentication system, which facilitates the access and enhances the transparency of the charging process. It is also an issue of access to charging stations, as charging is performed while the car is parked, and the possibility to book parking spots (adjacent to the charging station) is legally challenging in many countries. Dedicated parking spots for EV’s only do not solve the issue, as another (fully charged) EV can park for long term on the spot for which one account for charging after arrival.

Problems to be solved

Rapidly growing charging-demand for EVs

Carbon Emissions

Air pollution


The main goal of Public Charging System for Electric Vehicles is to offer charging facilities for electric vehicles. Whereas some benefits are likely to be fulfiled with a basic implementation of the solution, the fulfilment of the potential benefits depends on the functions implemented in a specific project.

Main Benefits
  • Promoting sustainable private transport models

  • Reducing local air pollution


Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each Solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the Solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.

Mandatory Functions
    charging vehicle
    accessing charger
Potential Functions
    managing charging system
    moving passenger by electric vehicle
    managing energy supply
    paying for charging
    informing customers about charging system
Products offering these functions


Charging apps let drivers of electric vehicles conveniently access nearly the entire public and web-enabled charging infrastructure.


There are two primary types of non-residential EV chargers: AC and DC. In addition, wireless charging systems are being developed but not yet at any significant scale.


In this system, an in-car converter converts AC to direct current to charge the battery. It is known as “normal” charge at around 20kW. There are two levels of AC charging, though Level 2 is the only one suitable for public charging stations. As of 2020, there were 200,000 public AC charging stations in EU member states. Charging time is generally 4-8 hours.

(Mckinsey, 2018)


DC charging is the “fast” charging option, operating at powers ranging from 25kW to 350kW,  and is also known as level 3 charging. The charging system converts the AC from the grid to DC before the current enters the vehicle. As of 2020, there were 25,000 public DC charging stations in EU member states. Charging time is generally 20 – 30 minutes.

(Mckinsey, 2018)


These systems are relatively nascent technologies and have not yet been produced at any meaningful scale. They use electromagnetic waves to charge batteries, usually involving a charging pad connected to a wall socket and a plate attached to the vehicle. The available technology currently aligns with level 2 chargers and has 11kW of power.

(Mckinsey, 2018)

City Context

  • Large number of electric vehicles

  • Lower numbers of single-family homes means greater need for public charging

  • Dense, urban cities with high amounts of on-street and commercial garage parking face increased public charging demand


Supporting Factors

The primary supporting factor for public charging stations is government funding.

Government Initiatives

Countries in Europe have a variety of subsidies and incentives for building EV charging infrastructure. For example, Germany offers the following for public charging stations:

  • A subsidy of up to €3,000 for purchasing charging stations of up to 22 kW.
  • A subsidy of up to €12,000 for purchasing DC chargers up to 100 kW.
  • A subsidy of up to €30,000 for purchasing DC chargers above 100 kW.
  • Connections to the grid are subsidized by up to €5,000 for low voltage and €50,000 for medium voltage grid connections.

(Noyens, 2020)

Stakeholder Mapping

Market Potential


Average implementation time: 0.5 - 1 years

Initial investment amount: 50,000 - 250,000 Euro for one or two fast-charging stations

Market Overview

The market of electric vehicles is a steadily growing market. Most public charging stations are funded and promoted by governments.

Costs and Charging Time

In general, increasing costs shorten the charging time. One reason is that increasing charging power requires grid updates, which lead to significantly increased investment costs.

But besides the increasing costs, low charging times allow more people to use the charger per day. That is why all public chargers from 3.6 kW AC to 62.5 DC, compete on a comparable cost level with approximately 1370–1800 EUR/kW regarding the costs per capacity. The 250 DC chargers cost level is less than half of this. But that applies only to a (fictive) full-time operation.

A fast charging station is designed for up to 75 users per day, while an AC charger for a maximum of four users per day. Hence, almost 20 slow chargers would be needed to equal one fast charging station. As DC-fast chargers are fully stretched they are the cheapest public option. Maintenance cost may be significant for on-street charging equipment, which is one reason for the low cost of a home charger.

Cost Structure

In general, there is an industry consensus that the cost of public charging units is trending downwards and will continue to decrease. However, installation costs are highly variable and there is no consensus among industry stakeholders about the direction of future installation costs (US Department of Energy, 2015).

Charging Ports usually need an investment of

  • Level 2 AC ranges from 400 to 6500 USD, or
  • DC fast charging ranges from 10,000 to 40,000 USD

and result in variable costs for installation of

  • Level 2 AC ranges from 600 to 12700 USD, or
  • DC fast charging ranges from 4,000 to 51,000 USD.

The following graphic gives an overview of different cost ranges.

Figure 1 Ballpark Cost Ranges (US DOE, 2015)

Legal Requirements

1) Regulation limiting freedom to operate:

Regulations on selling energy consumption-based:

  • European regulation 2014/31/EU: Provision of non-automatic weighing instruments
  • 2014/32/EU: European Measuring Instruments Directive

(Intertek, 2015)

2) Safety regulations:

  • IEC 61851: Minimal electric security requirements for production and installation of charging infrastructure 
  • 2004/108/EG: Regulation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
  • 2006/95/EC: Security Standards of the low-voltage directive 
  • ISO 19363: Inductive charging, requirements for cars and safety regulations

(Intertek, 2013)

The creation of this Solution has been supported by EU funding

Use Cases

E-Charging Station with remote control in Mülheim

The solution aims to promote the replacement of fossil fueled vehicles by facilitating use of EVs. The charging infrastructure enables the tenants to charge their EVs. It is implemented in collaboration with various shared E-mobility providers rendering the use of a private car unnecessary.

Smart Charging for Electric Vehicles in Eindhoven

In order to promote use of Electric Vehicles and better manage the charging infrastructure,a smart charging system was developed. 6 Type-2 AC chargers installed in Strijp-S with two charging point. Peak load management system/charging management system is included in the project.

Fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

In Stockholm, a fast charging station within the GrowSmarter project is established by Fortum at the parking facility by McDonald’s restaurant. Fast charging stations could provide electric vehicles with fully charged batteries in less than 30 minutes. 

Normal charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

Electric Vehicles increase in share of car sales and charging infrastructure is important to facilitate the transition to an improved vehicle fleet in cities. In Stockholm five to ten normal charging stations  have installed to satisfy citizen needs.

Developing charging infrastructure to promote e-mobility in Barcelona

Endesa Energía has implemented five fast charging stations in Barcelona with the aim of promoting clean transport in the city.

Vehicle to X (V2X) Charging for Electric Vehicles

In Barcelona, an innovative form of Vehicle-to-X (V2X) charging for Electric Vehicles has been implemented. This can increase the renewable energy penetration, energy storage, grid flexibility and facilitate energy management optimization.

Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

Want to see our expert's advice about this Solution?

Log in

Related Solutions

Vehicle Sharing System

Vehicle sharing systems allow customers to use various vehicles without the need to own each vehicle. There are different types of vehicle sharing systems on the market. Differences can include the type of vehicle shared, like car sharing, bike sharing, scooter sharing or electric vehicle sharing.

Electric Bus System

The Electric Bus System is a public transportation system that is operated by electric buses only. Electric buses are not only environmentally beneficial, as they do not have any local emission, but due to their longer lifespan and lower operational costs, they can also be financially beneficial.

Bike Sharing System

A bike sharing system intends to provide a community with a shared fleet of bikes. Therefore, individual users do not have to own a bike, but rather everyone can use the fleet flexibly.

Smart Parking

A Smart Parking System makes use of sensors or other technologies to determine the availability of parking lots in cities. This information can be shared with drivers, reducing the time spent looking for parking, and thus reducing traffic congestion.

Smart Microgrids

Microgrids are emerging as an attractive, viable solution for cities, utilities, and firms to meet the energy needs of communities by leveraging more sustainable resources, while increasing resilience, reducing emissions, and achieving broader policy or corporate goals.

Energy Storage Systems

Energy storage systems are used to store energy that is currently available but not needed, for later use. The goal is to create a reliable and environmentally friendly system. As the share of renewables increases, so does the need for storage. With storage, energy can be used when it is needed.

Bi-directional Electric Vehicle Charging

Bidirectional electric vehicle charging refers to EV chargers that allow not only for charging the battery of the EV but also for taking energy from the car battery and pushing it back to the grid when needed.

Energy Efficient Retrofitting of Buildings

Improving energy efficiency of the building stock in a city needs strategic and long-term thinking. Complex ownership structures, market barriers, diversity of building typologies, consumer preferences and multiple stakeholders involved makes energy efficient retrofitting a big challenge.

District Heating & Cooling Systems

State-of-the-art district heating and cooling systems are paving the way for municipalities to reduce overall carbon emissions and to speed up the energy transition through the efficient distribution of heat and cold from renewable energy sources.

Peer to Peer Energy Trading

Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading creates an online marketplace where energy can be traded with low barriers. This makes local renewable energy more accessible.

Municipal Energy Saving Systems

The supply of energy to households, public buildings and services accounts for the majority of GHG emissions in the majority of municipalities. Energy Saving Systems represent punctual solutions to optimise energy consumption.

Virtual Power Plant

VPPs are a response to the growing number of distributed energy resources (DER) making their way onto the grid, as VPPs allow their production to be pooled to achieve the flexibility and scale needed to trade in the electricity market; unleashing gains for prosumers, aggregators, and grid operators.

Smart Home System

The majority of public funding for energy efficiency within the EU is proposed in the building sector. The federal funds for energy efficiency in residential buildings added up to €97 million in 2019. A Smart Home System is one possibility to improve residential energy efficiency.

Smart Lighting

Smart streetlights enable the reduction of running expenses associated with public lighting by delivering several value-added services to cities and citizens.

Building Energy Management System

According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of energy consumption and 36% of CO2 emissions in the EU.

Local Energy System

Approximately one-quarter of the energy price is owed by the transportation of the energy. The implementation of a local energy system can shift the energy production from a centralised system to a decentralised system.