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The current EU regulation on emissions for cars is the strictest worldwide. Along with further restrictions the thresholds cannot be meet with conventional cars only anymore. One alternative technology, reducing the local emissions, are electric vehicles. For a successful market penetration, a functioning infrastructure is necessary. Therefore, public charging systems for electric vehicles support the electrification of urban mobility systems by providing chargers.
These chargers can be of different power ranges and charging technologies. In addition, they can be smartly integrated into the local grid and provide information about the system for customers, operator and other stakeholders.
For the user experience, it is recommended to include a payment and authentication system, which facilitates the access and enhances the transparency of the charging process.

Main Benefits

  • Promoting sustainable private transport models

  • Reducing local air pollution

Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.

Mandatory Functions

    charging vehicle

    accessing charger

Potential Functions

Business Model

Implementation

Average implementation time: 0.5 - 1 years 

Initial investment amount: 50,000 - 250,000 Euro for one or two fast-charging stations

 

Market Overview

The market of electric vehicles is a steadily growing market. By now, most of the public charging stations are funded and promoted by governments. The results of a new study demonstrate that, with continued public support and growth of the electric vehicle market in the near term, it is reasonable to expect the private sector to be able to be the predominant source of funding for publicly available commercial charging stations within approximately three years (by 2020).

 

Costs and Charging Time

The graphic shows the relation between the implementation costs of conductive chargers and the charging time. In general, it shows that increasing costs shorten the charging time. One reason is that increasing charging power requires grid updates, which lead to significantly increased investment costs.

But besides the increasing costs, low charging times allow more people to use the charger per day. That is why all public chargers from 3.6 kW AC to 62.5 DC, compete on a comparable cost level with approximately 1370–1800 EUR/kW regarding the costs per capacity. The 250 DC chargers cost level is less than half of this. But that applies only to a (fictive) full-time operation.

A fast charging station is designed for up to 75 users per day, while an AC charger for a maximum of four users per day. Hence, almost 20 slow chargers would be needed to equal one fast charging station. As DC-fast chargers are fully stretched they are the cheapest public option. Maintenance cost may be significant for on-street charging equipment, which is one reason for the low cost of a home charger. 

(Andreas Schroeder and Thure Traber, 2011) 

 

Driving Factors

Subsidies

The graphics out of a McKinsey study gives an overview on some countries’ subsidies on electric chargers. The table also shows the current number of fast and slow chargers implemented in the countries. The Netherlands, which have the highest number of total chargers, support local operators by offering tax incentives and support on creating the charging infrastructure.

Download of full table, page 31

(McKinsey and Company, 2014) 

Legal Requirements

Regulations

1) Regulation limiting freedom to operate:

Regulations on selling energy consumption-based:

  • European regulation 2014/31/EU: Provision of non-automatic weighing instruments
  • 2014/32/EU: European Measuring Instruments Directive

(Intertek, 2013)

2) Safety regulations:

  • IEC 61851: Minimal electric security requirements for production and installation of charging infrastructure 
  • 2004/108/EG: Regulation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
  • 2006/95/EC: Security Standards of the low-voltage directive 
  • ISO 19363: Inductive charging, requirements for cars and safety regulations

(Intertek, 2013)

3) EU Standards:

This figure from NPE shows most of the relevant EU-standards on public charging systems.

(NPE, 2017)

 

Use Cases

E-Charging Station with remote control in Mülheim
The solution aims to promote the replacement of fossil fueled vehicles by facilitating use of EVs. The charging infrastructure enables the tenants to charge their EVs. It is implemented in collaboration with various shared E-mobility providers rendering the use of a private car unnecessary.
Smart Charging for Electric Vehicles in Eindhoven
In order to promote use of Electric Vehicles and better manage the charging infrastructure,a smart charging system was developed. 6 Type-2 AC chargers installed in Strijp-S with two charging point. Peak load management system/charging management system is included in the project.
Fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles
In Stockholm, a fast charging station within the GrowSmarter project is established by Fortum at the parking facility by McDonald’s restaurant. Fast charging stations could provide electric vehicles with fully charged batteries in less than 30 minutes. 
Normal charging infrastructure for electric vehicles
Electric Vehicles increase in share of car sales and charging infrastructure is important to facilitate the transition to an improved vehicle fleet in cities. In Stockholm five to ten normal charging stations  have installed to satisfy citizen needs.
Developing charging infrastructure to promote e-mobility in Barcelona
Endesa Energía has implemented five fast charging stations in Barcelona with the aim of promoting clean transport in the city.
Vehicle to X (V2X) Charging for Electric Vehicles
In Barcelona, an innovative form of Vehicle-to-X (V2X) charging for Electric Vehicles has been implemented. This can increase the renewable energy penetration, energy storage, grid flexibility and facilitate energy management optimization.
Mobility Station in Mülheim
The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

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