The current EU regulation on emissions for cars is the strictest worldwide. Along with further restrictions the thresholds cannot be meet with conventional cars only anymore. One alternative technology, reducing the local emissions, are electric vehicles. For a successful market penetration, a functioning infrastructure is necessary. Therefore, public charging systems for electric vehicles support the electrification of urban mobility systems by providing chargers.
These chargers can be of different power ranges and charging technologies. In addition, they can be smartly integrated into the local grid and provide information about the system for customers, operator and other stakeholders.
For the user experience, it is recommended to include a payment and authentication system, which facilitates the access and enhances the transparency of the charging process.
Promoting sustainable private transport models
Reducing local air pollution
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Average implementation time: 0.5 - 1 years
Initial investment amount: 50,000 - 250,000 Euro for one or two fast-charging stations
The market of electric vehicles is a steadily growing market. By now, most of the public charging stations are funded and promoted by governments. The results of a new study demonstrate that, with continued public support and growth of the electric vehicle market in the near term, it is reasonable to expect the private sector to be able to be the predominant source of funding for publicly available commercial charging stations within approximately three years (by 2020).
Costs and Charging Time
The graphic shows the relation between the implementation costs of conductive chargers and the charging time. In general, it shows that increasing costs shorten the charging time. One reason is that increasing charging power requires grid updates, which lead to significantly increased investment costs.
But besides the increasing costs, low charging times allow more people to use the charger per day. That is why all public chargers from 3.6 kW AC to 62.5 DC, compete on a comparable cost level with approximately 1370–1800 EUR/kW regarding the costs per capacity. The 250 DC chargers cost level is less than half of this. But that applies only to a (fictive) full-time operation.
A fast charging station is designed for up to 75 users per day, while an AC charger for a maximum of four users per day. Hence, almost 20 slow chargers would be needed to equal one fast charging station. As DC-fast chargers are fully stretched they are the cheapest public option. Maintenance cost may be significant for on-street charging equipment, which is one reason for the low cost of a home charger.
(Andreas Schroeder and Thure Traber, 2011)
The graphics out of a McKinsey study gives an overview on some countries’ subsidies on electric chargers. The table also shows the current number of fast and slow chargers implemented in the countries. The Netherlands, which have the highest number of total chargers, support local operators by offering tax incentives and support on creating the charging infrastructure.
(McKinsey and Company, 2014)
1) Regulation limiting freedom to operate:
Regulations on selling energy consumption-based:
- European regulation 2014/31/EU: Provision of non-automatic weighing instruments
- 2014/32/EU: European Measuring Instruments Directive
2) Safety regulations:
- IEC 61851: Minimal electric security requirements for production and installation of charging infrastructure
- 2004/108/EG: Regulation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
- 2006/95/EC: Security Standards of the low-voltage directive
- ISO 19363: Inductive charging, requirements for cars and safety regulations
3) EU Standards:
This figure from NPE shows most of the relevant EU-standards on public charging systems.
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