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Mobility Hubs are places of connectivity where different modes of transportation - from walking to rapid transit – come together seamlessly. One of the key components of mobility hubs is the presence of a large area of influence, which is achieved from the concentration of employment, housing, shopping and/or recreation centres. This integrated suite of mobility services is intended to meet first-last mile needs of transit users through shared and sustainable transportation. It offers different options to users and ensures optimal connectivity. The most beneficial intermodal mobility hubs are mainly implemented close to existing mobility junctions such as train stations, as well as other transit stations.

Other elements of mobility hubs include dedicated curb spaces for taxis, energy generation from solar cells, electric vehicle charging stations, interactive kiosks, and amenities like cafes or plazas to create an active space that is welcoming during layovers.

Problems to be solved


Carbon emissions

Safety & Security




The main goal of Mobility Hubs is to ease the interchange between different modes of transportation. This improves mobility services for citizens and encourages the use of collective modes of transportation, as opposed to individual modes. Additional benefits of Mobility Hubs are given below, with benefits varying from project to project depending on the scale of implementation.

Main Benefits
  • Improving public transport accessibility

  • Improving travel safety

  • Promoting sustainable private transport models

  • Reducing GHG emissions

Potential Benefits
  • Improving life quality

  • Enabling new business opportunities

  • Improving traffic management

  • Promoting sustainable behavior

  • Improving social integration


Functions help you to understand what the products can do for you and which ones will help you achieve your goals.
Each Solution has at least one mandatory function, which is needed to achieve the basic purpose of the Solution, and several additional functions, which are features that can be added to provide additional benefits.

Mandatory Functions
    Facilitate seamless integration of different modes of transportation

    Connects trains, cars, bikes, etc., and encourages sharing

    Provide access to residents from different neighbourhoods

    Promotes city-wide inclusion by optimising transport schedules

    Ensure safety and security for all travellers

    Ensures accountability for vehicle sharing and provides security at hubs

Potential Functions
    Cater to services that will help cover first and last mile travel for residents

    Optimises first and last mile logistics

    Provide universal access through mobility cards

    Facilitates the use of single payment sytems/mobility cards for as many modes of transportation as possible

    Provide healthy spaces to spend time in

    Provides free spaces for play and rest

    Provide access to toilets, shopping facility, restaurants, cafes, and bars

    Provides essential services for travellers during layovers

    Provide charging stations for electric vehicles

    Facilitates the installation of charging infrastructure

    Offer connectivity

    Provides WiFi services for travellers


Based on size and complexity of services offered, mobility hubs can be classified into the following variants:


These are small mobility hubs with some basic services that are usually located in low-density neighbourhoods. All amenities are usually visible generally across the street or within the same block. They have a small footprint and serve smaller access-sheds than large-scale mobility hubs.


These are mobility hubs located in more complex urban environments and encompass one or more stations or bus stops.  They usually provide additional services such as car sharing or information on the next connection.


These are large scale mobility hubs usually located in dense urban areas or terminal stations with transit options to regional trains. Major mobility hubs provide services such as secured bike parking and bus layover zones, alongside various other amenities, and infrastructures. They have a large footprint, provide access for high-capacity modes, and serves a large access-shed reflecting regional demand.

Use Cases

Smart multimodal mobility services

In this measure, the city of Turku catalyzes and pilots the development of a MaaS system and services in the city of Turku.

Shared e-mobility system in Milan

Milan’s shared e-mobility system includes: e-cars, e-bikes, e-logistics vehicles, smart parking, e-vehicle charging, and condominium e-car sharing.

E-mobility stations for the Domagkpark district and centre-periphery integration

Mobility stations, as part of traffic and mobility planning, are a new concept. They enable cost-effective and flexible access to different modes of transport. Two mobility stations are therefore established in the project area.

Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

City Context

Before mobility hubs can be implemented in a city, it is important to assess the specific requirements of the regional population, demography, land use, travel patterns, and the regional policy objectives. Correct placement and availability of the right range of services are some of the driving factors for the success of mobility hubs. Clearly, the more services offered, the more complex the operation will be, but also the more attractive it might be. The decision should be based on a thorough analysis of the expected costs and benefits of the possible service offers (financial and non-financial).

Some key lessons learnt from the implementation of mobility hubs around the world are:

  • Mobility hubs work best when they are located within acceptable walking distances to/from accommodations, local centres, and public transport nodes.
  • With the rapid technological advancements in transportation such as electric vehicles, the need for charging infrastructures, and dynamic digital services, flexible functioning of mobility hubs is crucial.
  • Joint information and trainings on services offered by all participating actors and how they work, should be given to the public.
  • Business models are dependent on the extent of private sector involvement. An initial assessment of potential stakeholders and scale of infrastructure should be carried out, as well as land use and citizens’ income.
  • The possibility of external financing through EU-projects or another research financing can be explored.
  • A budget should be reserved from the start of the project, for assessment and evaluation of the effects of the project on travel habits.

(Trivector, 2019)

Government Initiatives

1) Transport White Paper 2011: The European Commission adopted a roadmap of 40 concrete initiatives for the next decade to build a competitive transport system that will increase mobility, remove major barriers in key areas and fuel growth and employment. At the same time, the proposals will dramatically reduce Europe's dependence on imported oil and cut carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050.

By 2050, key goals will include:

  • No more conventionally fuelled cars in cities.
  • 40% use of sustainable low carbon fuels in aviation; at least 40% cut in shipping emissions.
  • A 50% shift of medium distance intercity passenger and freight journeys from road to rail and waterborne transport.
  • All of which will contribute to a 60% cut in transport emissions by the middle of the century (European Commission)

(European Commission)


2) Urban Mobility Package 2013:

  • Calls for action from the Member States
  • Commits to reinforce EU support in exchange of experience and best practice and funding
  • Gives help for cities to develop Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans
  • Gives recommendations for coordinated action in: Urban logistics, Urban access regulations, ITS deployment in urban areas, Urban road safety (European Commission)

(European Commission) 


3) The Urban Mobility Portal:

  • Eltis facilitates the exchange of information, knowledge, and experience in the field of sustainable urban mobility in Europe. It is an extensive guide with a well-detailed process and was developed with the needs of the small & medium-sized cities in mind.

(European Commission)  

Stakeholder Mapping

Stakeholder Map of Mobility Hubs (Gavilán Orozco, 2020BABLE 2021)

Market Potential

With the increasing use of digital platforms to manage traveller journeys end-to-end, smart mobility will reshape mobility ecosystems over the next 20 years. According to an analysis done by Oliver Wyman, which includes China; USA; Germany; France; and Italy, the market share of innovative mobility services is projected to quintuple through 2040, while the share of private cars will shrink by roughly a quarter.

Market Share Forecast

To gain a deeper understanding of these developments from a traveller perspective, 7.500 global consumers were surveyed about smart mobility, to assess the smart mobility attractiveness to different traveller groups, consumers’ willingness to pay, potential impacts on modal shifts, and perceptions of companies in the smart mobility space. The results of the survey, as shown in the figure below, revealed that majority of participants would consider changing their currently preferred mode of travel if an alternative offered smart mobility services.

Survey Results

The above is particularly true for young consumers (18-35). For instance, 96 % and above would consider switching from cars to public transport for access to smart mobility. With increasing age, the influence of smart mobility offerings on individual travel decisions declines, but even so, 84% of respondents over 65 identified smart mobility services as important, and three-quarters of seniors would change their preferred travel mode for access to smart mobility.

The rewards of unlocking smart mobility could be vast, as this market is expected to generate $270 billion in revenues and profits of $125 billion to $150 billion by 2040.

(Oliver Wyman Mobility 2040 )

Cost Structure

Resources Needed for Mobility Hub Implementation (BABLE, 2021)


Operating Models

High upfront investment that will most likely come from public sources are required initially to set up the infrastructures and amenities for mobility hubs. In the long run, less financing will be required. Other funding sources such as flexible ticketing models (subscriptions), parking tariffs, pricing model from vehicle sharing, revenues from advertising and electric vehicle charging infrastructures will be possible. Anticipated incomes from the operation can be used to attract external investors or serve as a basis for value capture mechanisms. Government subsidies are likely to play a bigger role in small, neighbourhood mobility hubs, in the absence of private sector involvement.

With the proliferation of electric vehicles, developing infrastructures that allow for faster charging times is one of the issues that the industry is currently facing, as well as precise business model of how EV charging can be monetized. Mobility hubs must therefore find a balance between integrating EV charging infrastructure with options for filling up on petrol since fossil fuel vehicles will not disappear anytime soon.


Some of the regulations and standards set up by the European Commission to drive the adoption of innovative transport technologies whilst ensuring data protection are:

1) Intelligent Transport System (Directive 2010/40/EU): It was adopted on 7 July 2010 to accelerate the deployment of innovative transport technologies across Europe. This Directive is an important instrument for the coordinated implementation of ITS in Europe, and aims to establish interoperable and seamless ITS services while leaving Member States the freedom to decide which systems to invest in.

(European Commission)


2) General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679): It lays down rules relating to the protection of natural persons about the processing of personal data and rules relating to the free movement of personal data. It protects the fundamental rights and freedoms o natural persons and in particular their right to the protection of personal data.

(European Commission)


3) Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (Directive 2014/94/EU): It sets out minimum requirements for the building-up of alternative fuels infrastructure, including recharging points for electric vehicles and refuelling points for natural gas (LNG and CNG) and hydrogen, to be implemented by means of Member States' national policy frameworks, as well as common technical specifications for such recharging and refuelling points, and user.

(European Commission)

The creation of this Solution has been supported by EU funding

Use Cases

Mobility Station in Mülheim

The Mobility stations in Mülheim provide commuters and residents of the busy district with a location, where they can easily find various alternative transport options. The aim is to encourage behavioral change from using cars towards more active modes of transport like walking and cycling. 

Supporting New Mobility and reducing parked cars in the streets of Schwabing West, Munich

Mobility behaviour in highly densed cities needs a change towards a higher use of New Mobility. By presenting the full range of alternative mobility, this pilot project in Munich helped residents to change their daily mobility usage.

Integrated on-demand mobility for a strong public transport system

The on-demand service has been successfully on the road since 2018 and was expanded to Billbrook in 2019. As a result, ioki Hamburg now not only improves the accessibility of public transport in the inner city, but also the connection in the surrounding areas (Stormarn and Harburg districts).

Digitalised ASL/ALT transport in rural areas

The new 'Wittlich Shuttle' can be booked on demand and via the app. It has been successfully in use since 2018 and has seen an increase in passengers of up to 400% compared to the previous city bus. Even during the Corona crisis, the concept has proven to be safe, needs-based and flexible.

On-call company transport as a flexible and sustainable alternative to company cars

Thanks to digitalisation and optimisation, a total of 14 accessible vehicles have been successfully operating between the Bonn, Darmstadt and Frankfurt sites. Since then, the company transport service has offered Telekom employees a flexible and sustainable alternative to a company car.

Optimisation and digitalisation of an existing regular service in Appenzell, Switzerland

After the service was launched it has been booked by over 16,000 passengers to date. The advance booking function in particular is very popular and has been used for almost 90% of journeys to date. This allows residents and tourists in the region to plan their journeys in advance and safely.

On-demand mobility in Karlsruhe region's rural areas

Integration of an on-demand service into the public transport system for residents of rural regions in Karlsruhe

Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan - Aberdeen

Aberdeen is undergoing a series of major transformative projects. Work is therefore underway to identify the measures required to ‘lock in’ the benefits of the new bypass and transform the urban core into a much more pleasant place to visit and spend time in.

E-mobility stations for the Domagkpark district and centre-periphery integration

Mobility stations, as part of traffic and mobility planning, are a new concept. They enable cost-effective and flexible access to different modes of transport. Two mobility stations are therefore established in the project area.

Smart multimodal mobility services

In this measure, the city of Turku catalyzes and pilots the development of a MaaS system and services in the city of Turku.

Shared e-mobility system in Milan

Milan’s shared e-mobility system includes: e-cars, e-bikes, e-logistics vehicles, smart parking, e-vehicle charging, and condominium e-car sharing.

ZUM App View

MaaS app for multimodal routes in Zaragoza, Spain

In April 2021, the Zaragoza City Council and Avanza announced the launch of ZUM app integrating different modes of transport in the Aragonese capital and allowing users to plan, book and pay for multimodal routes.

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