Solutions on BABLE are expert-curated proposals for efficiently implementable Smart City projects. Each Solution contains a list of benefits and a list of functions needed to achieve these benefits, as well as information on the business model, driving factors, relevant legal regulations, advices from experts and links to relevant use-cases and products.
Last Mile Delivery
Due to the growing share of on-line shopping nowadays, an additional sales channel for companies has come up. Internet sales have become an essential part of retail business in recent years. Consequently, the volume of traffic caused by delivery services has increased rapidly with the success of e-commerce. Likewise, the delivery market slowly transforms from a mainly B2B market to a B2C one (e.g. Drone delivery). The final track of the supply chain – home delivery to a customer – is called “Last Mile”. The “Last-Mile” of a delivery poses significant logisticalcal challenges, especially regarding the increasing customer expectations, such as "same day delivery" or "exact time delivery" which leads to the decreasing time available for planning. Furthermore, the “Last mile” has a huge effect in traffic of commercial vehicles in cities. The Last Mile Delivery (LMD) accounts for a major part of the costs involved in a delivery. A research of Capgemini Research Institute showed that the costs of LMD account 41 % of the overall supply chain costs ( Jacobs, Warner et al., p. 20 ). Figure 1 - Distribution of overall supply chain costs ( Jacobs, Warner et al., p. 20 ) In the reality of LMD, challenges like a small or single order compared to deliveries to stores, many constantly changing geographically dispersed locations (compare deliveries to stores) etc. must be faced. The goal is to improve the efficiency of LMD, to minimise costs incurred, improve safety to minimise the impact on traffic as well as minimise the environmental impact. To improve the quality of life in the affected areas, the LMD should become environmentally friendly and emission-free (noise and emissions), the volume of traffic should be reduced to prevent illegal parking, collisions and stressful congestions. Congestion, air quality, collisions and illegal parking are all ills affecting the quality of life of citizens. The accessibility of inner-city locations is becoming more and more limited for cars and trucks in contrast delivery services are growing especially in these dense inner-city areas. There are several solutions to solve these problems that reduce pollutant emissions, lower the impact on traffic, improve safety and make LMD more efficient.
The average city driver spends 6-14 minutes looking for a parking place, and in large cities, the time increases to 18-20 minutes. It is estimated that this time spent searching for a parking lot represents 30% of congestion on city streets. A Smart Parking System makes use of sensors or other technologies to determine the availability of parking lots in cities. This information can be shared with drivers, reducing the time spent looking for parking and thus reducing traffic congestion. Moreover, smart parking can be used to improve the usability at the parking place itself. Parking fees are already part of the cities’ revenues. Implementing a Smart Parking System enables cities to control their traffic better, apply different tariffs according to different areas and hours, and to use per minute rates - instead of flat rates - thanks to new billing models. ( Shoup, 2007; Shoup, 2008 ; IBM, 2011 ) Smart Parking systems and their functions can have several effects that can support the aims of the municipality or the users. The following diagram shows how the different aspects are intertwined. Essential benefits of Smart Parking ( Anke, Scholle, 2016, translated ) Problems to be solved Bad air quality Congestion Underused parking space Park offenders Accidents/ collisions
Urban Air Quality Platform
For the last decade, Urban Air Quality Platforms (UAQPs) have been an important tool for collecting, processing and visualising hyperlocal data about urban emissions. Similarly, UAQPs are generally open for access providing transparency and air pollution awareness. Data can be provisioned either by dispersed sensors across the city or through satellite imagery. The sensors collecting the data can be installed either by an operator (e.g. the municipality) or on private property. This solution intends to solve the following problems: Siloed AQ data Unaccounted emissions Restricted data access Misidentification of emission sources