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Die Pilotphase von Bable@bw wird gefördert durch das Innen- und Digitalisierungsministerium Baden-Württemberg im Rahmen der Digitalalakademie@bw. Ziel ist die Unterstützung von Kommunen und Landkreisen bei Wissenstransfer und Innovationsprozessen für digitale Umsetzungsprojekte.

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Beschreibung

 

Jeden Tag atmet jeder rund 20.000 Mal ein und aus - gleichzeitig belasten Industrien, Verbrennungsmotoren und Schornsteine unsere Luft ständig. Eine städtische Luftqualitätsplattform ist ein Netzwerk zur Erfassung der Luftqualität, das den Bürgern den Zugang zu hyperlokalen Daten über lokale Emissionen wie Ozon, Partikel, Stickoxide, Kohlenmonoxid und Ammoniak ermöglicht. Darüber hinaus können auch Daten über die Luftqualität, das Wetter oder den Verkehr hinzugefügt werden.

Nutzen

The main goal of the Urban Air Quality Plaform is to raise awereness on the Urban Air Quality. Thereby, it intends to initiate actions fighting pollution. Whereas some benefits are likely to be fulfiled with a basic implementation of the solution, the fulfilment of the potential benefits depends on the functions implemented in a specific project.

Funktionen

Funktionen helfen Ihnen zu verstehen, was die Produkte für Sie tun können und welche Ihnen dabei helfen, Ihre Ziele zu erreichen.
Jede Lösung hat mindestens eine obligatorische Funktion, die erforderlich ist, um den grundlegenden Zweck der Lösung zu erreichen, und mehrere zusätzliche Funktionen. Diese Funktionen können hinzugefügt werden, um zusätzliche Vorteile zu bieten.

Obligatorische Funktionen
    Collecting data on local air quality

    Products as sensors collecting data on local air quality sensors

    Informing citizens about air quality

    Products informing citizens about local or hyperlocal air quality, such as an App or a website

Mögliche Funktionen
    Giving suggestion on behavioural changes

    Products generating and giving advices on optimization of citizens’ behaviour

    Enabling citizen participation

    Products allowing citizens to offer private property to install sensors

Varianten

How air quality data is visualised is rather straightforward, through a dashboard in a web browser platform or mobile app. However, what truly differs is the methods of data collection and processing. The following variants give an overview of four different data collecting methods.    

Beschreibung

Low-cost air quality sensors are becoming widely used for broad urban applications, as they offer air pollution monitoring at a lower cost than conventional methods, thus allowing a higher density deployment.

Metal oxide sensors are the most affordable in the market, in 2020, the approximate cost of such system ranged between 1,000 – 5,000 EUR. With higher sensor cost, the response time and sensitivity to temperature and humidity variations improves.

Therefore, a low-cost sensor deployment must be accompanied by a machine learning algorithm that can reproduce sensor responses at different measurement sites and conditions. Due to the influence of meteorological parameters on a sensor signal, simple correction and/or calibration is not always possible.

Beschreibung

Participatory sensing is the action of citizens voluntarily using their computational devices to capture and share sensed data from their surrounding environments in order to monitor and analyse air quality. Recent technological advances in sensor technology have allowed for the creation of portable as well as visually appealing sensors that can be carried or be installed in backyards. These sensors can both provide air quality data to a central UAQP and inform citizens of the surrounding air quality through an app.

Anwendungsfälle

Verwendung mobiler Daten zur Berechnung der Luftverschmutzung

Da die zunehmende Umweltverschmutzung zu einem der größten Probleme der Städte wird, müssen sie genaue Daten zur Luftqualität sammeln, bevor sie konkrete Maßnahmen ergreifen. In diesem Projekt verwendet Telefonica Next anonymisierte Mobilfunkdaten zur Berechnung der Luftverschmutzung.

Mobile Luftreinhaltung in Bussen

Die städtische Luftverschmutzung ist hyper-lokal. Die tödliche Luftverschmutzung variiert mehr als 8x innerhalb von 200 Metern, was sich jedoch nicht auf den aktuellen Luftverschmutzungskarten widerspiegelt. AirVeraCity liefert den Menschen verwertbare Informationen zur Luftqualität.

Beschreibung

While ground sensing can accurately measure air pollutant concentration, its coverage is limited to the deployment of sensors. Therefore, researchers in Europe, have developed a software that uses fine spatial resolution sensors to determine air quality at an urban level. This is achieved through a radiometric comparison of satellite imagery of a clear day to a polluted day. This provides a relative quantitative scale of air pollution, which is used in conjunction with ground-based monitors to develop spatially resolved maps of air pollution (Engel-Cox et. al, 2012)

The European Space Agency is nowadays the leading organisation in fostering remote sensing satellite imagery for the improvement of air quality. Projects such as Copernicus provide satellite information to help service providers, public authorities and other international organisations improve European citizens' quality of life.

Geschäftsmodell

Implementation Facts

Average Implementation Time: 0,1 - 1 years

Initial Investment Amount: less than 50,000 € for an urban district

Market Overview

According to a review by Business Wire, amidst the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Air Quality Monitoring Systems is estimated at 3.47 Billion EUR. Similarly, it is projected to reach a revised size of 4.63 Billion EUR by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 4.4%.

The global air quality monitoring market is divided into indoor and outdoor monitoring. Urban air quality systems are classified as outdoor monitoring systems. These can be further categoriszed into fixed, portable, dust, and particulate monitors and air quality monitoring stations. 

Costs

Current technological advances in air quality sensors significantly decreased both fixed and variable costs of UAQPsurban air quality platforms.  Fixed costs include the software, consisting of its communication API and web graphical user interface. Variable costs include calibration and maintenance, among others.

New technologies remove most of the need for local maintenance and calibration, moving these functions to a cloud service. Therefore, operating costs of these kinds of platforms include cloud-based computerized maintenance management systems.

Achieving citizen awareness and understanding of urban air quality systems is necessary for any UAQP implementation. Therefore, fixed costs must include a citizen portals and citizen participation campaigns.

Impacts of Air Pollution:

1) Global Warming

2) According to research co-authored by UCL, an estimated 1 in 5 deaths every year can be attributed to fossil fuel pollution and in 2018, approximate 8.7 million people died due to fossil fuel emissions alone. Figure from which 21.5 % is attributed to particulate matter. Figure 1 illustrates the death distribution as a cause of air pollution. 

Figure 1. Average outdoor PM2.5 pollution and total air pollution deaths by region in 2013 (World Bank, 2013)

3) In 2016, the WHO declared that 92 percent of the global population lived in areas where the pollution exceeded the world health organization’s air quality guidelines. 

4) The effects of air quality on people was estimated in 2013 to cost the global economy approximately  190 billion EUR (World Bank, 2013).

Causes of indoor air pollution:

As mentioned, anthropogenic sources are the main contributors to air pollutants. However, air pollution can also be caused by natural sources such as volcanic activity (releasing mainly SO2, CO2, and HF), sandstorms like the Saharan Dust, and ozone produced by the reaction of sunlight with oxygen. Nonetheless, anthropogenic sources are emitted with a much higher rate and density.

Anthropogenic sources can be classified into mobile, stationary and area sources. Mobile sources involve emissions produced by transportation, such as vehicles, maritime vessels and trains. Air pollutants in exhaust gases are generated by incomplete combustion of fuel. Carbon monoxide and unburned fuel are the main exhaust gases produced by gasoline engines.

Stationary sources are power plants, industrial activity and oil refineries. The effect of these is greater when located within the urban area of a city. The energy sources with the highest emission factor are lignite hard coal, which is the reason why there is a global effort to phase out coal as an energy source.

Finally, area sources can be appointed to agricultural and human activity. Agricultural emissions are usually underestimated; however, being that ammonia NH3 and methane CH4 are the main air pollutants, their impact is severe. Methane, for example, has a global warming potential 28 times higher than carbon dioxide.

Treibende Faktoren

Government Initiatives

  • UK Clean Air Strategy: This strategy sets out the comprehensive action that is required from all parts across the UK government and society to meet environmental goals. The 2019 legislation outlines a strong and coherent framework for action to tackle air pollution.
  • European Green Deal: The EU Green Deal under its policy area “Eliminating Pollution” has reinforced among others its support to local authorities to achieve cleaner air for its citizens. It will also propose to strengthen provisions on monitoring, modelling, and air quality plans to help local authorities achieve cleaner air. The Commission will notably propose to revise air quality standards to align them more closely with the World Health Organization recommendations

Rechtliche Anforderungen

Regulations

European Union policy on air quality aims to develop and implement appropriate instruments to improve air quality. Therefore, European States have to divide their territory into several zones and agglomerations. In these zones and agglomerations, the Member States need to undertake assessments of air pollution levels using measurements, modelling, and other empirical techniques – and report air quality data to the European Commission accordingly.

The EC has set air pollutants concentration limits enforcing member states to address the sources responsibly. In addition, information on air quality should be disseminated to the public. (European Commission, 2018)

  • Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC: The directive provides the current framework for the control of ambient concentrations of air pollution in the EU. The control of emissions from mobile sources, improving fuel quality, and promoting and integrating environmental protection requirements into the transport and energy sector are part of these aims.
  • Directive 2015/1480/EC:Establishes the rules concerning reference methods, data validation, and location sampling points for the assessment of ambient air quality
  • Directive 2010/75/EU:On industrial emissions
  • Directive/2284/EU: On the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. This directive enforces the reduction of air pollutants such as SOx, NOx, and VOCs.
  • German Federal Emission Control Act – BImSchV 39th: The procedure for determining urban emission sources in Germany is defined in the 39th Ordinance of the Federal Immission Control Act (39th BImSchV). This federal law is based on the EU Directive 2008/50/EC.

 

Daten und Normen

  • IEEE/ISO/IEC 21451: defines an object model with a network-neutral interface for connecting processors to communication networks, sensors, and actuators
  • ISO 37120:Sustainable cities and communities — Indicators for city services and quality of life: Defines and establishes methodologies for a set of indicators to steer and measure the performance of city services and quality of life
  • ISO/DIS 37156: Guidelines on data exchange and sharing for smart community infrastructures
  • TA Luft – German Technical Instructions on AQ Control: Regulates air quality requirements including emissions, ambient exposures, and their control methods. It is applicable to a number of pollutants from a range of stationary sources.

Unterstützende Faktoren

  1. City wide deployment of sensors for representative sampling of air quality
  2. Prioritisation for sensor at locations with highest pollutant concentration
  3. Strong and uninterrupted connectivity between physical and digital assets
  4. Citizen approval for the installation of sensors across the city

Supporting Organisations

  • European Environment Agency: Experts of the EEA analyse the air quality data monitored across Europe. The processed data is fed into assessments to help decision-makers across Europe formulate better policies and rules to deal with air pollution problems.
  • European Space Agency: Is ESA is dedicated to the peaceful exploration and use of space for the benefit of humankind. ESA uses Earth observation satellites to monitor the Earth´s environmental status. Through the use of satellite data, ESA can draws thea bigger picture regarding the global change. Scientists and governments can use this data to understand, protect and manage our environment, safeguarding the Earth for future generations.
  • EU JRC: The European Commission’s Joint Research Centre is working to harmonise air and climate monitoring and modelling methodologies.  On this end, the JRC develops coherent greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emission inventories and projections, and tcarries out econometric trend analyses and cost estimates of emission control options. They are currently developing new standards on air quality sensors which will drive further innovation in UAQDPs.

Stakeholder-Zuordnung

Kostenstruktur

Fixed Costs 
Software (Including API and GUI): 25 %                                                                           
Sensors: 75 %  
Variable Costs 
Operation & Maintenance: 50 % of Fixed Costs                   

 

Betriebsmodelle

Die Erstellung dieser Lösung wurde durch EU-Finanzierung unterstützt

Anwendungsfälle

Mobile Luftreinhaltung in Bussen

Die städtische Luftverschmutzung ist hyper-lokal. Die tödliche Luftverschmutzung variiert mehr als 8x innerhalb von 200 Metern, was sich jedoch nicht auf den aktuellen Luftverschmutzungskarten widerspiegelt. AirVeraCity liefert den Menschen verwertbare Informationen zur Luftqualität.

Sensor-based emission control system for port areas

Understand the contribution from Hamburg's port area as a source of air pollution. Together with AIS and weather information it should be possible to identify individual vessels as pollutants sources.

Verwendung mobiler Daten zur Berechnung der Luftverschmutzung

Da die zunehmende Umweltverschmutzung zu einem der größten Probleme der Städte wird, müssen sie genaue Daten zur Luftqualität sammeln, bevor sie konkrete Maßnahmen ergreifen. In diesem Projekt verwendet Telefonica Next anonymisierte Mobilfunkdaten zur Berechnung der Luftverschmutzung.

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Verwandte Lösungen

Städtische Datenplattform

Urbane Datenplattformen bilden die Grundlage für eine Vielzahl von Anwendungen in einer Smart City. Eine städtische Datenplattform soll Daten von verschiedenen Interessengruppen des Smart City Ökosystems kartieren, speichern und integrieren.

Smart Microgrids

Microgrids are emerging as an attractive, viable solution for cities, utilities, and firms to meet the energy needs of communities by leveraging more sustainable resources, while increasing resilience, reducing emissions, and achieving broader policy or corporate goals.

Digital Twin

Digital twins are virtual representations of an object, process or system that can be used to run simulations to optimise efficiency. Cities can use them to plan transportation systems, prepare for natural disasters, and identify optimal locations to install solar panels.

Energy Efficient Retrofitting of Buildings

Improving energy efficiency of the building stock in a city needs strategic and long-term thinking. Complex ownership structures, market barriers, diversity of building typologies, consumer preferences and multiple stakeholders involved makes energy efficient retrofitting a big challenge.

Last Mile Delivery

On-line sales has become an essential part of the retailing business in the past years. Consequently, the volume of traffic caused by delivery services has increased rapidly. What impacts cities most is he final track of the supply chain, the so called “Last Mile” delivery.

Intermodale Mobilitätszentren

Der Verkehrssektor ist für 28 Prozent der Treibhausgasemissionen verantwortlich, der Großteil davon (60 Prozent) wird durch die persönliche Mobilität verursacht. Eine Möglichkeit, die Umweltauswirkungen der persönlichen Mobilität zu verringern, ist die nahtlose Integration verschiedener Verkehrsmittel über Mobilitätszentren.

Virtuelles Kraftwerk

Die zunehmende Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien erhöht das Risiko von unvorhersehbaren Abschnitten oder Spitzenwerten bei der Energieerzeugung. Ein virtuelles Kraftwerk reduziert diese Risiken, indem es mehrere kleine Produktionseinheiten zusammenfasst.

Städtischer Notfalldienst

Die städtische Infrastruktur muss in der Lage sein, auf verschiedene Herausforderungen wie Katastrophenereignisse, Naturkatastrophen, Terroranschläge und weitere Notfälle zu reagieren. Zu diesem Zweck ist ein integriertes Notfallmanagementsystem erforderlich, das die Lücke zwischen Notfallzentren und Bürgern schließt.

Smart Parking

Ein Smart Parking System nutzt Sensoren oder andere Technologien, um die Verfügbarkeit von Parkplätzen in Städten zu ermitteln. Diese Informationen können mit den Fahrern ausgetauscht werden, was die Zeit für die Suche nach einem Parkplatz und damit die Verkehrsüberlastung reduziert.

Smart Home Video Kommunikation

Vor allem in weniger dicht besiedelten Gebieten oder für weniger mobile Menschen kann ein Videokonferenzsystem den Zugang zu vielen Dienstleistungen wie medizinischer Beratung, Bildung, Behörden oder Justiz erleichtern.

Intelligente Beleuchtung

Intelligente Straßenlaternen ermöglichen die Reduzierung der Betriebskosten im Zusammenhang mit der öffentlichen Beleuchtung, indem sie Städte und Bürger mit mehreren Mehrwertdiensten versorgen.

Intelligenter und vernetzter öffentlicher Raum

Ein intelligenter und vernetzter öffentlicher Raum sammelt Daten im öffentlichen Bereich und zeigt oder reagiert auf die Daten. Die Daten können sicher über Wi-Fi oder andere ähnliche Technologien übertragen werden, d.h. in Kombination mit einem zentralen System.