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Die Pilotphase von Bable@bw wird gefördert durch das Innen- und Digitalisierungsministerium Baden-Württemberg im Rahmen der Digitalalakademie@bw. Ziel ist die Unterstützung von Kommunen und Landkreisen bei Wissenstransfer und Innovationsprozessen für digitale Umsetzungsprojekte.

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Beschreibung

Most cars are idly parked 90-95% of the time. With an accelerated shift to using electric vehicles (EVs), batteries of EVs offer enormous potential in terms of using their vast collective storage capacity as a flexible solution to support the grid, which can be taxed with an intermittent renewable energy supply. Bidirectional electric vehicle charging (V2X) refers to EV chargers that allow not only for charging the battery of the EV but also for taking energy from the car battery and pushing it back to the grid when needed.

There are two primary receivers of power from an EV: the grid (V2G) and the electricity from a home or building (V2H). Bi-directional charging creates greater synergy between the clean transport sector and renewable energy sources, as the car batteries can store excess energy created by variable renewable sources such as wind and solar, then provide power to the grid or home when demand is high or energy production is low. This reduces curtailment, lowers the need for grid infrastructure investments and allows for higher renewable energy integration. In addition, V2H charging can act as an emergency power source during power outages and V2G can provide vehicle owners with extra income through arbitrage of time-variable energy prices.

 

Problems to be solved

 

Grid congestionGrowing energy consumptionFluctuating generation of renewablesUneven peaks in energy usage

 

 

Nutzen

The main goal of Bi-directional Electric Vehicle Charging is to increase the grid flexibility. Thereby, it increases potential revenue streams through arbitrage or provision of ancillary services and the integration of solar PV as well as the self-reliance in case of electricity blackouts while it enables the optimization of smart micro grids, Besides that, the solution achieves the benefits listed below. Whereas some benefits are likely to be fulfiled with a basic implementation of the solution, the fulfilment of the potential benefits depends on the functions implemented in a specific project.

Funktionen

Funktionen helfen Ihnen zu verstehen, was die Produkte für Sie tun können und welche Ihnen dabei helfen, Ihre Ziele zu erreichen.
Jede Lösung hat mindestens eine obligatorische Funktion, die erforderlich ist, um den grundlegenden Zweck der Lösung zu erreichen, und mehrere zusätzliche Funktionen. Diese Funktionen können hinzugefügt werden, um zusätzliche Vorteile zu bieten.

Obligatorische Funktionen
    Charging electric vehicles

    Bi-directional charging enables to charge electric vehicles

    Storing electricity into car battery

    Bi-directional charging enables not only to charge, but to store electricity in a car battery

    Feeding energy from the battery back into the grid

    Bi-directional charging enables to feed energy back into the grid

    Managing energy supply and demand

    Products that manage energy supply and demand

    Providing flexibility to the grid (V2G)

    With suitable control, flexibility is provided to the grid

Mögliche Funktionen
    Providing backup power (V2H)

    Products and services that enable the use of the EV as backup power

    Using the EV battery for balancing and frequency control

    Products and Services that enable to use the battery of the EV to balance and control frequencies

    Informing customers

    Products that inform the customer about the services

    Paying for the energy fed back into the grid

    Services that enable payment for energy fed back into the grid

Varianten

The variants of bi-directional charging concern whether power goes from the vehicle to the grid (V2G) or to a building or home (V2B or V2H).

Beschreibung

The smart grid controls vehicle charging and returns electricity to the grid. The transmission system operator may be willing to purchase electricity from customers at times of peak demand or to use the EV battery capacity for ancillary services such as balancing and frequency control.

Rahmenbedingungen des Stadtumfeldes

Cities with high solar photovoltaic (PV) generation profiles benefit more from bi-directional charging than those with high wind generation profiles because solar energy is generated and stored during the day and then can be dispatched at night when the vehicle is connected to the grid. Other supporting factors include dynamic electricity pricing and competitive ancillary service markets. (IRENA, 2019)

Anwendungsfälle

Vehicle to X (V2X) Laden für Elektrofahrzeuge

In Barcelona wurde eine innovative Form der Vehicle-to-X (V2X)-Ladung für Elektrofahrzeuge implementiert. Dies kann die Verbreitung erneuerbarer Energien, die Energiespeicherung, die Netzflexibilität und die Optimierung des Energiemanagements erhöhen.

The Parker Project- V2G Services

The Parker project tested the validity of a company fleet with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) services to support the power grid and support greater integration of renewable energy, while earning revenue.

Beschreibung

Vehicles supply supplemental power to the building or home. This does not directly affect grid performance but rather provides a back-up power supply. It can also help the vehicle owner to avoid demand charges or increase the usage share of power produced on-site by distributed generation.

Rahmenbedingungen des Stadtumfeldes

In the aftermath of the Fukushima disaster, commercial V2H has been available in Japan since 2012 to provide emergency electricity in case of a power outage. Market deployment has not yet been reached elsewhere.

Kostenstruktur

The costs of a Bi-directional Electric Vehicle Charging System occuring due to the interface costs which are 3-5 times higher than that of unidirectional smart charging. Additionally new hardware is neccessary and the batteries might be degredated quicker.
 

Stadt-Kontext

As cities generate more and more renewable energy to reach their carbon neutrality targets, bi-directional charging offers a cheaper energy strorage system to balance and optimize the grid. However, for bi-directional charging to be successful in a city, there must be regulations and policy supporting such a solution:

  • For V2G technology to be enticing enough to be deployed at a high scale, EV owners must be able to ‘stack’ revenue streams from the flexibility services their car’s battery provides. A Danish pilot project found revenue streams of an average 1860 EUR per year (Andersen, 2021).
  • There also needs to be a high level of EV deployment in the city with the same V2X capabilities to enable aggregation of the EV batteries to create a sort of virtual power plant.
  • The EV charging stations and distribution networks need to be interoperable to prevent vendor lock-in and allow for cost-effective connectivity between EVs and diverse charging infrastructure.
  • Studies have additionally shown that solar-based electricity systems see the most incremental benefits from bi-directional charging.

As the technology is new, cities can promote the sustainable behavior by building the infrastructure on a small scale (e.g. the municipal fleet) with the intention to build on the solution long-term. In addition, to support wide scale deployment of bidirectional charging, newly planned charging stations should be ‘smart’ chargers that are capable of facilitating the grid service described with the V2X solution.

Unterstützende Faktoren

  1. High EV deployment so EVs can be aggregated
  2. Regulation that enables price signals to optimise charging and discharging
  3. Interoperability between EVs, charging stations and distribution networks

Initiativen der Regierung

  • In the UK only home charge points that use smart technology are eligible for government funding under the Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme (IRENA, 2019)
  • EU Clean Energy Package removes ‘double charging’ fees for drawing and injecting power into the grid (IRENA, 2019)

Stakeholder-Zuordnung

Stakeholder Map of a Bi-directional Electric Vehicle Charging System (BABLE, 2021)

Marktpotenzial

  • According to Germany’s Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW), 5.6 million EVs were on the world’s roads as of the beginning of 2019. If most of the passenger vehicles sold from 2040 onwards were electric, more than 1 billion EVs could be on the road by 2050. This would mean that by mid-century around 14 terawatt-hours (TWh) of EV batteries would be available to provide grid services, compared to a projected 9 TWh of stationary battery capacity. EVs typically only need to charge for 10% of the time they stand idle and are parked 95% of the time leaving 85% of their lifetime to, in theory, provide grid flexibility services (Mohammadi, 2019).

Kostenstruktur

Bidirectional charging points are still a nascent technology and very few are on the market. Thus, the cost structure varies widely and is expected to change as the technology matures.

Daten und Normen

  • International norms to standardise V2X charging technology include IEC 63110 and IEC 61850 (IRENA, 2019)
  • An updated version of the ISO 15118 – 2 standard, which is concerned with communication between EV and a charging station) is expected to be released in Europe in 2021(ISO 15118-20). This will enable ‘Plug & Charge’ functionality. (IRENA, 2019)

Die Erstellung dieser Lösung wurde durch EU-Finanzierung unterstützt

Anwendungsfälle

The Parker Project- V2G Services

The Parker project tested the validity of a company fleet with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) services to support the power grid and support greater integration of renewable energy, while earning revenue.

Vehicle to X (V2X) Laden für Elektrofahrzeuge

In Barcelona wurde eine innovative Form der Vehicle-to-X (V2X)-Ladung für Elektrofahrzeuge implementiert. Dies kann die Verbreitung erneuerbarer Energien, die Energiespeicherung, die Netzflexibilität und die Optimierung des Energiemanagements erhöhen.

Verwandte Lösungen

Öffentliches Ladesystem für Elektrofahrzeuge

Die aktuelle EU-Verordnung über die Emissionen von Personenkraftwagen ist die weltweit strengste. Neben weiteren Einschränkungen können die Schwellenwerte mit herkömmlichen Autos nicht mehr erreicht werden. Eine alternative Technologie, die die lokalen Emissionen reduziert, sind Elektrofahrzeuge.

Energiemanagement-System für Gebäude

Der größte Teil der öffentlichen Mittel für die Energieeffizienz in der EU wird für den Gebäudesektor vorgeschlagen. Die Bundesmittel in diesem Bereich belaufen sich 2014 auf 5,4 Milliarden Euro. Eine Möglichkeit, die Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden zu erhöhen, ist die Implementierung eines Gebäudeenergiemanagementsystems (BEMS).

Smart Microgrids

Microgrids are emerging as an attractive, viable solution for cities, utilities, and firms to meet the energy needs of communities by leveraging more sustainable resources, while increasing resilience, reducing emissions, and achieving broader policy or corporate goals.

Energy Storage Systems

Energy storage systems are used to store energy that is currently available but not needed, for later use. The goal is to create a reliable and environmentally friendly system. As the share of renewables increases, so does the need for storage. With storage, energy can be used when it is needed.

Energy Efficient Retrofitting of Buildings

Improving energy efficiency of the building stock in a city needs strategic and long-term thinking. Complex ownership structures, market barriers, diversity of building typologies, consumer preferences and multiple stakeholders involved makes energy efficient retrofitting a big challenge.

District Heating & Cooling Systems

State-of-the-art district heating and cooling systems are paving the way for municipalities to reduce overall carbon emissions and to speed up the energy transition through the efficient distribution of heat and cold from renewable energy sources.

Peer to Peer Energy Trading

Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading creates an online marketplace where energy can be traded with low barriers. This makes local renewable energy more accessible.

Municipal Energy Saving Systems

The supply of energy to households, public buildings and services accounts for the majority of GHG emissions in the majority of municipalities. Energy Saving Systems represent punctual solutions to optimise energy consumption.

Virtuelles Kraftwerk

Die zunehmende Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien erhöht das Risiko von unvorhersehbaren Abschnitten oder Spitzenwerten bei der Energieerzeugung. Ein virtuelles Kraftwerk reduziert diese Risiken, indem es mehrere kleine Produktionseinheiten zusammenfasst.

Smart Home System

Der größte Teil der öffentlichen Mittel für die Energieeffizienz in der EU wird für den Gebäudesektor vorgeschlagen. Die Bundesmittel in diesem Bereich belaufen sich 2014 auf 5,4 Milliarden Euro. Ein intelligentes Heimsystem ist eine Möglichkeit, die Energieeffizienz von Wohnungen zu verbessern.

Intelligente Beleuchtung

Intelligente Straßenlaternen ermöglichen die Reduzierung der Betriebskosten im Zusammenhang mit der öffentlichen Beleuchtung, indem sie Städte und Bürger mit mehreren Mehrwertdiensten versorgen.

Lokales Energiesystem

Etwa ein Viertel des Energiepreises entfällt auf den Transport der Energie. Die Implementierung eines lokalen Energiesystems kann die Energieerzeugung von einem zentralen System auf ein dezentrales System verlagern.